Nobel Prize Current Affairs

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Winners of 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Tomas Lindahl (United Kingdom), Paul Modrich (US) and Aziz Sancar (US) have jointly won 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has chosen them for their research on mechanistic studies of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) repair.

Their work has provided fundamental knowledge of functioning of living cell functions and its application for the development of new cancer treatments.

Aziz Sancar:  He has mapped Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) which is the mechanism in which cells repair Ultra Violet (UV) damage to DNA. He is from the University of North Carolina, US.

Tomas Lindahl: He has successfully demonstrated that DNA decays at a rate that ought to have made the development of life on Earth impossible. He is from the Francis Crick Institute.

Paul Modrich: He has successfully demonstrated how the cell corrects errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division. He is from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University School of Medicine, UK.

They will receive the award at the annual award ceremony to be held on December 10, 2015 on the anniversary of the death of prize founder Alfred Nobel.  All the three laureates will share the prize money of 8 million Swedish kronor equally.

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Winners of 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics

Takaaki Kajita (Japan) and Arthur B. McDonald (Canada) have jointly won the prestigious 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected them for their key contributions to experiments showing that neutrinos change identities. They individually have discovered neutrino oscillations and shown that neutrinos have mass.

Arthur McDonald

Mr. McDonald is a professor emeritus at Queen’s University in Kingston, Canada. He had led a research group which had demonstrated that the neutrinos from the Sun were not disappearing on their way to Earth. The group had captured these neutrinos with a different identity at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Canada).

Takaaki Kajita

Takaaki Kajita is from the University of Tokyo, Japan. He had discovered that neutrinos from the atmosphere switch between two identities when they reach earth and after were captured by Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector (Japan).

About Neutrino

  • Neutrinos were first proposed by Swiss scientist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930. They are electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin.
  • They are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe after photons which are the particles makingg up light.
  • It belongs to the lepton family. There are three types of neutrinos: electron neutrinos (ve), muon neutrinos(vu) and tau neutrinos(vT) differing in terms of mass.

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Nobel Prize for Medicine 2015 winners

Three scientists Youyou Tu (China), Satoshi Omura (Japan) and William Campbell (Ireland) have won 2015 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

They have been chosen for their pioneering discoveries which have led to the development of potent new drugs against parasitic diseases such as malaria and elephantiasis.

The laureates will receive their prizes on December 10, 2015 at a formal ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden marking the anniversary of the death of prize creator Alfred Nobel.

William Campbell and Satoshi Omura: Both biochemists have won half of the Nobel Prize of this edition for discovering avermectin, a derivative which is used to treat hundreds of millions of people with river blindness and lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis).

Youyou Tu: She was awarded the other half of the prize for discovering artemisinin, a drug that has reduced malaria deaths and has become the mainstay of fighting the mosquito-borne disease. She is the 13th woman to win Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine and became first Chinese woman laureate.

Diseases: River blindness is skin and eye disease which ultimately leads to blindness. Lymphatic filariasis which is also known as elephantiasis causes painful swelling of the limbs.

About Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

  • The Nobel award for medicine is given to persons whose discoveries have significantly enhanced the understanding of life or the practice of medicine.
  • The winners are chosen by the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute and are always announced before the Nobel Prize for other categories.
  • The Nobel comes with prize money of 8 million Swedish kroner or 1.1 million dollars.

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