As per the second update of the Annual Health Survey (AHS), all major health indicators in the country’s worst-performing States are showing a gradual improvement over the years but inter-State variations persist.
About 2nd update of Annual Health Survey (AHS)
- Objective: To monitor the performance and outcome of various health interventions of the Government including those under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) at closer intervals through benchmark indicators
- In 284 districts of nine states survey was conducted.
- States: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Assam.
- These states account for about 48 % of the total population in the country.
Highlights of the Annual Health Survey (AHS)
(a)Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR):-
- Minimum CBR: Bageshwar (14.7) in Uttarakhand.
- Maximum CBR: Shrawasti (40.9) in Uttar Pradesh.
- CBR in rural areas of districts is higher than that in urban areas.
- Minimum CDR: Dhemaji (4.5) in Assam.
- Low female death rates have also been observed as compared to male death rates.
(b)Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):-
- Minimum IMR: Rudraprayag (19) in Uttarkhand.
- Maximum IMR: Shrawasti (103) in Uttar Pradesh.
- Districts achieved the MDG -4 National target of 28 by 2015: Purbi Singhbhum & Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and Chamoli, Rudraprayag, Pithoragarh & Almora (Uttarakhand).
- Four districts viz. Bokaro & Ranchi (Jharkhand) and Bageshwar & Nainital (Uttarakhand) are in closer vicinity to achieve the MDG-4 National target.
- IMR in rural areas of districts is significantly higher than that in urban areas.
(c)Neo-Natal Mortality Rate (NNMR):-
- Minimum NNMR: Rudraprayag (11), Uttarkhand.
- Maximum NNMR: Balangir (75) in Odisha.
- Rural NNMR in districts is significantly higher than the urban.
(d)Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR):-
- Minimum U5MR: Pithoragarh district (24), Uttarakhand.
- Maximun U5MR: Kandhmal district (145), Odisha.
- Districts achieved the MDG -4 National target of 42 by 2015: Pithoragarh, Almora, Rudraprayag, Chamoli, Nainital & Bagheswar (Uttarakhand) and Purbi Singhbhum (Jharkhand).
- 10 districts viz. Dhanbad, Bokaro, Kodarma, Hazaribagh & Giridih (Jharkhand) and Kota (Rajasthan) and Champawat, Udham Singh Nagar, Dehradun & Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) are in closer vicinity to achieve the MDG-4 National target.
- Rural U5MR in districts is significantly higher than the urban.
(e) Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR):-
- Minimum MMR: Kumaon HQ (183) in Uttarakhand.
- Maximum MMR: Faizabad Mandal (451) in UP.
(f) Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB)
- Minimum SRB: Pithoragarh district (764), Uttarakhand.
- Maximum SRB: Moradabad district (1034), Uttar Pradesh.
- Crude Birth Rate (CBR) denotes live births per 1000 population and Crude Death Rate (CDR) denotes number of deaths per 1000 population.
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) denotes the number of infant deaths (age below one year) per 1000 live births.
- Neo-Natal Mortality Rate (NNMR) measures the number of infant deaths (age below 29 days) per 1,000 live births.
- Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) denotes the number of children who died before reaching their fifth birthday per 1,000 live births.
- Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) measures the proportion of maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births.
- Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) defined as the number of female live births per 1,000 male live births.
Outcome of the survey: These indicators would provide requisite inputs for better planning of health programmes and pave the way for evidence based intervention strategies.
The Punjab Cabinet approved the Backward Class (BC) status for the Jat and Jat Sikhs of the State. Now, Jats and Jat Sikhs are the 69th and 70th community to be included in the category.
As per the Punjab Cabinet decision
- Quota benefit will also be extended to economically weaker persons from the general category.
- These reservations would be in addition to the quota already in place and would not affect the existing quota sections.
- A commission will be set up to work out modalities for the implementation of the Cabinet decision.
- The grant of BC status to the Jats and Jat Sikhs will enable them to get reservation in government jobs.
Note: Recently, the Union Cabinet decided to extend OBC status to Jats of Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Uttarakhand and Delhi. Though, Jats and Jat Sikhs of Punjab had been left out of the Union Cabinet’s decision because the Punjab government had failed to bring the community in the State BC list.
Former Delhi chief minister Ms. Sheila Dikshit (75) appointed as the Governor of Kerala by the President Mr. Pranab Mukherjee. Ms. Dikshit succeeded Mr. Nikhil Kumar, a former Delhi Police Commissioner. She became the 22nd Governor of Kerala. Ms Dixit formerly served as the Chief Minister of Delhi from 1998 to 2013.
Ms Dikshit was defeated in her own constituency, New Delhi,In December 2013 elections to the Legislative Assembly of Delhi, by Mr Arvind Kejriwal
- President Pranab Mukherjee also approved a second term for Uttar Pradesh Governor B.L. Joshi.
The skeletal remains of the Indian soldiers, who were killed by the British troops for participating in the First War of Independence in 1857, are exhumed at Ajnala well in Amritsar district, Punjab. These were our freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives during the First War of Independence in 1857.
- ‘Kalian Wala Khuh’: Martyrs place where the remains of over 250 Indian soldiers dumped unceremoniously by the British in a deep well at Ajnala in the wake of the 1857 uprising.
- Neither the Indian Government nor the Government of Punjab, attempted to extract the bodies of the martyrs and perform the last rites and restore the honour of the soldiers of the first freedom struggle.
- Gurdwara Shaheed Ganj Committee (a gurdwara in the border town of Ajnala) exhumed the remains of Indian soldiers who were executed by the British authorities for participating in the 1857 mutiny.
- The exercise is being done to perform last rites of these soldiers after160 years.
- The well that was dug was previously known as kalianwala khu (well of the black people) has been renamed as Shaheedanwala khu (well of the martyrs).
What British authorities did with the Indian soldiers of the 26th Bengal Native Infantry (in Lahore) in 1857, when they revolted against the East India Company?
In the 1857 mutiny, around 500 soldiers of 26th Native Infantry Regiment revolted at Mian Mir Cantonment in Lahore.
- They marched towards Ajnala from Lahore after hearing the reports of the Sepoy mutiny in Meerut where Hindu and Muslim troops rebelled against the East India Company over the cartridges for their rifles being greased with animal fat.
- When soldiers were moving ahead to join the revolt, they had an encounter with the British troops on the banks of the Ravi, where 220 soldiers attained martyrdom and their bodies were thrown into the river.
- The remaining 280 soldiers were arrested and were confined in the overcrowded barracks located at Ajnala tehsil complex.
- Later, the British killed these soldiers too and buried them in Kalian Wala Khuh.
India‘s First War of Independence (Indian Rebellion of 1857)
- Also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, etc.
- A violent revolt against the British rule.
- Immediate cause of Revolt: The introduction of Enfield greased rifles whose cartridges were said to have a greased cover made of beef and pork sparked off the revolt. It antagonized both Hindu and Muslim soldiers.
- The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company’s army on 10th May 1857, in the town of Meerut. It soon escalated into other mutinies and civil rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.
- Leaders of 1857 revolt: Mangal Pandey, Rani Lakshmi bai, Bahadur Shah II, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Babu Kunwar Singh, Nana Saheb Peshwa, Bakht Khan, etc.
Outcome of revolt: British victory - Suppression of the rebellion, End of the Mughal and Maratha Empires, End of Company rule in India and Transfer of rule to the British crown.