The Supreme Court declared illegal all coal block allocations between 1993 and 2010, saying these were done in an unfair, arbitrary and non-transparent manner without following any objective criteria. The court, however, said that further hearing was required to decide whether there is a need for cancelling around 200 coal block allocations.
The petitions were based on the Comptroller and Auditor General’s (CAG) report that the exchequer suffered a loss of Rs. 1.64 lakh crore due to the arbitrary allocations of coal blocks. The coal blocks allocated to private companies between 2004 to March 2010 are situated in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.
IIEST are a group of academic institutions in India for research and education in engineering. The Government of India had first proposed these institutes in 2007 to cater to the growing demand for technological and scientific workforce in the industrial and service sectors of India as well as the increasing requirement for qualified personnel in research and development. Admissions to IIEST Shibpur will be done through the JEE advanced from the year 2015.
Key points about INS Kolkata:
- Largest indigenously-built warship
- Constructed by the Mazagon Dockyards Limited and designed by Navy’s design bureau.
- The 6,800 tonne warship is a technology demonstrator and will mark India’s giant leap in shipbuilding technology.
- To be a part of the Kolkata Class destroyers of the Indian Navy which will include follow-on ships by the name of INS Kochi and INS Chennai respectively.
- The Project 15A Kolkata class destroyers are follow-on of the legendary Project 15 ‘Delhi’ class destroyers which entered service in the late 1990s.
- Length: 164 m, Width: 18 m, Full load displacement: 7400 tonnes.
- It derives her name from the cultural capital city of India and state capital of Bengal – Kolkata – `The City of Joy`.
INS Kolkata is Equipped with:
- Combined Gas and Gas (COGAG) propulsion system.
- Most sophisticated state-of-the-art weapons and sensors including the vertically launched Long Range Surface to Air Missiles (LRSAM).
- MF-STAR multi-function active phased array radar, which is fitted for the first time on an Indian Naval ship.
- Advanced supersonic and long range BrahMos Surface to Surface Missiles – a joint Indo-Russian venture.
- 76 mm Super Rapid Gun Mount (SRGM) and AK 630 CIWS, both manufactured indigenously, can take on air and surface targets.
- Anti-submarine weapon and sensor suite fitted onboard, consisting of Indigenous Rocket Launchers (IRL), Indigenous Twin-tube Torpedo Launchers (ITTL) and a bow-mounted New Generation HUMSA Sonar are a fine example of our indigenous efforts in the field of underwater warfare.
- A state-of-the-art Combat Management System (CMS-15A) integrated with the onboard weapons and sensors.
A ‘Network of Networks’
The ship can be truly classified as a ‘Network of Networks’ as it is equipped with sophisticated digital networks, such as:
- ATM based Integrated Ship Data Network (AISDN): It is the Information highway on which data from all the sensors and weapons ride.
- Auxiliary Control System (ACS): It is used for Remote control and monitoring of machinery.
- Automatic Power Management System (APMS): It is used for Intricate power supply management.
- Combat Management System (CMS): Used to integrate information from own data sources and collate information from other platforms using indigenous data-link system, to provide maritime domain awareness.
Unique feature of INS Kolkata
High level of indigenisation achieved with most of the systems onboard sourced from within the India which has generated a sound vendor base for future ships. Major indigenised equipment/ systems onboard INS Kolkata include:
- Combat Management System (CMS), Auxiliary Control System (ACS)
- Automatic Power Management System (APMS)
- Foldable Hangar Doors
- Helo Traversing System and bow mounted HUMSA NG system
Justice Banumathi is only the 6th woman judge of the SC since India’s Independence. Now, the 30-judge SC will now have two woman judges. The other is Justice Ranjana Prakash Desai. The sanctioned strength of the apex court is 31. Justice Banumathi is the one who ordered ban on jallikkattu and bull taming game in rural Tamil Nadu. The judgment paved the way for formulating guidelines to regulate the traditional sport in the state.
The other women judges of the court were Justice M Fathima Beevi (Kerala) who was the first woman SC judge, Justice Sujata V Manohar (Maharashtra), Justice Ruma Pal (West Bengal) and Justice Gyan Sudha Misra (Bihar).