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Sex Ratio at Birth at decline in India: CRS data

According new  data from Civil  Registration System ( CRS) released by the Office of the Registrar General of India, Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) continues to worsen in India.

The SRB has declined to 887 in 2014 from 898 in 2013. The  ratio  has  been  declining  since  2011  when  the  figure  was 909. Thus, Sex ratio at birth is still on the decline.

Key facts

  • The SRB based on CRS figures indicate the gap between registered male and female births, calculated as the number of females per thousand males.
  • Highest SRB has been reported in Lakshadweep (1043), followed by Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1031) and Arunachal Pradesh (993).
  • Lowest SRB has been reported in Manipur (684), Rajasthan (799) and Tamil Nadu (834). These states have worst SRB.
  • The level of registration of births with CRS has been improving. In 2014, it is estimated that 88.8% births were registered, up from 85.6 % in 2013.
  • 16 States/UTs recorded all births. 14 out of 20 major States crossed the 90% level of registration of births in 2014.
  • The new date show that the majority of births in 2014 occurred in an institution i.e. government or private hospital. Institutional delivery accounted for 72% of all births.
  • Another 14.1% births were attended by physicians/nurse/midwife. However, around 3.8% of the cases were still attended by an untrained midwife.
  • While 38.7% of the total registered deaths had occurred in institution, 23.3% did not receive any medical attention at the time of death.
  • Only about 8.0% of the deceased received medical attention from qualified allopathic professional.

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India ranks 87th on the WEF’s Global Gender Gap Report 2016

India has been ranked 87th out of 144 countries on the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Gender Gap Report 2016. India has climbed 21 spots from 108th position in 2015.

The report measures gender gap as progress towards parity between men and women in four areas (i) Educational attainment, (ii) Health and survival, (iii) Economic opportunity and (iv) Political empowerment.

Key Highlights of the report

  • Top 5 Countries in 2016 Report: Iceland (1st), Finland (2nd), Norway (3rd), Sweden (4th) and Rwandaglobal-gender-report (5th).
  • India related facts: In this edition India has overtaken China which is ranked 99th.
  • The improvement in India’s ranking is driven largely by major improvements in education, where it has managed to close its gap entirely in primary and secondary education.
  • In case of education attainment, India has made considerable strides moving up from 125th rank in 2015 to 113th in 2016.
  • On economic participation and opportunity too, India has moved up to 136th rank in 2016, from 139th in the year 2015.
  • On health and survival, India has made little progress moving up by one place to 142nd rank compared to 141st in 2015. On political empowerment, India continues to be ranked 9th in the world.
  • Overall Global Facts: The global march towards parity in key economic pillar has slowed down dramatically. This gap stands at 59% which is now larger than at any point since 2008. As a consequence, global economic gender gap will now not close until year 2186.

Comment

The gender gap in India has narrowed down. But India still remains one of the worst countries in the world for women in terms of labour force participation, income levels as well as health and survival. India has closed its gender gap by 2% in a year (2016), but much work remains to be done to empower women in the economic sphere. India continues to rank third-lowest in the world on Health and Survival, remaining the world’s least-improved country over the past decade.

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Gender gap in jobs, wages remain unchanged in 20 years: ILO report

As per recently released report of International Labour Organization (ILO) titled-Women at Work: Trends 2016, gender equality still remains elusive in the workplace.

The report highlights trends in 2016 in 178 countries and it has been found that millions of women worldwide are not getting the same kind of quality, well-paying jobs as men.

Key Report Highlights

  • In past 20 years, the gender gap in employment, wages and social protection has changed little. They continue to work longer hours per day than men in both paid and unpaid work.
  • Women are overrepresented in clerical service and sales work, which are among the lowest paying jobs.
  • Significant progress has been made by women in education during the past two decades, but this has not translated into improvements at work. It shows that women are less likely to participate in the labour market compared to their counterpart men.
  • Women are more likely to be unemployed than men and young women are at a disadvantage.
  • Globally, women represent nearly 65% of people who have reached retirement age without any regular pension. They lose out in terms of social and retirement benefits since they earn less money.

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