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India develops National Action Plan to combat Antimicrobial Resistance

Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare announced the finalization of India’s comprehensive and multi-sectoral National Action Plan at the ‘Inter-Ministerial Consultation on AMR containment’ held at New Delhi. The consultation was attended by various ministers including Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Ram Vilas Paswan, and Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Anil Madhav Dave. The Ministers signed a ‘Delhi Declaration’ to contain Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR).

The Delhi Declaration calls for the support of all stakeholders including UN, WHO, FAO and other UN agencies, civil society organizations etc., in developing and implementing the national and state action plans on AMR. The National action plan has objectives of enhancing awareness, strengthening surveillance, improving rational use of antibiotics, reducing infections and promoting research

Governmental interventions

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has set up a National Anti-Microbial Resistance Research and Surveillance Network (AMRRSN) to enable compilation of data of AMR at the national level.

Under AMRRSN, ICMR is carrying out surveillance of drug resistance to antibiotics in the following six pathogenic groups:

  • Diarrhoeagenic bacterial organisms
  • Enteric fever pathogens
  • Enterobacteriaceae causing sepsis
  • Gramnegative Non-fermenters
  • Gram positives including MRSA
  • Fungal infections.

In addition, the health ministry enacted regulations to regulate the sale of antibiotics and brought out National Guidelines for the use of antibiotics.

Further, the National Programme for Containment of AMR is under implementation in 12th Five Year Plan with the following objectives:

  • To establish a laboratory-based surveillance system by strengthening laboratories.
  • To generate quality data on AMR for pathogens of public health importance.
  • To generate awareness among healthcare providers and in the community regarding the rational use of antibiotics.
  • To strengthen infection control guidelines and practices and promote rational use of antibiotics.

AMR

Antibiotic drug resistance is developed in the micro-organisms. AMR is the ability of a microorganism such as bacteria, viruses etc., to render the anti-microbial such as antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials ineffective against them. It results in failure of standard treatments and the spread of infections.

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India ranks 9th in corruption in business: EMEIA Fraud Survey  

According to EY Europe, Middle East, India and Africa (EMEIA) Fraud Survey 2017, India ranks 9th among 41 surveyed countries in bribery and corrupt practices in businesses.

India’s ranking has improved marginally from the survey findings in 2015 when India was at the 6th position. It has improved due to better regulatory scrutiny and emphasis on transparency and governance. 

Key Facts
  • In this edition of the survey, India ranked behind Ukraine, Cyprus, Greece, Slovakia, Croatia, Kenya, South Africa and Hungary,.
  • The survey noted that nearly 78% respondents in the India have mentioned that bribery and corrupt practices happen widely in businesses.
  • The findings in the survey also revealed that nearly 41% of Indian respondents are prepared to act unethically to enhance their own career
  • Over 13% respondents in India are prepared to provide false information to improve their career or pay. 58% stated that loyalty towards company prevents employees from reporting fraud, bribery or corruption.
  • The uncertainties in business environment, augmenting pressure to meet financial targets and aspirations to achieve unprecedented career growth are driving employees to justify unethical workplace behaviour.
  • Organisations should encourage millennials (people born in the 1980s-90s) to strengthen their moral compass, communicate importance of upholding ethical standards and develop programmes to motivate future leaders make right choices in life.
  • Globally, 1 in 5 respondents said they would be prepared to act unethically for their careers. It calls for improved enforcement action to restore confidence in businesses.

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India ranks 3rd in WADA doping charts

India was ranked third for the third year in a row in a doping violation report published by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for 2015.

In 2015, 117 Indian athletes were punished after testing positive for banned substances. India followed the Russian Federation (176) and Italy (129), the same position as in the reports of 2013 and 2014.

Background

The chart was prepared by WADA after compiling information of analytical findings and sanctions rendered till January 31, 2017 by various accredited anti-doping bodies. It was the first set of Anti-Doping Rule Violation statistics under the revised WADA Code and third such report in its history since 2013. 

Key Facts
  • ADRV is a doping offence committed by an athlete or athlete support person, resulting in certain consequences or sanctions. It is derived from adverse analytical findings (AAFs) (known as ‘positive’ results).
  • A total of 229,412 samples were received and analysed in 2015 by WADA-accredited laboratories worldwide.
  • Out of these, 2,522 samples were reported as AAFs. The dope offenders belong to 80 sports and 121 nationalities.
  • There were a total of 1,929 ADRVs (1,901 from athletes and 28 from athlete support personnel) out of which 1,649 are analytical findings and 280 from ‘evidence based intelligence’ non analytical findings.
  • Out of 1649 are Analytical ADRVs, 1304 cases (79%) were of male and 345 female (21%); 390 (24%) were from out of competition tests and 1259 in competition (76%); 1644 urine and five blood.
  • Among sports disciplines worldwide, bodybuilding has overtaken athletics in contributing the highest number of dope cheats with 270 such cases.
  • Athletics is second at 242, followed by weightlifting (239), cycling (200), powerlifting (110), football (108), rugby union (80), boxing (66), wrestling (57) and basketball (39).
  • India related facts: The number of dope offenders from India has been increasing in the last three years. India had 91 and 96 Anti-doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) in 2013 and 2014 respectively.
  • Of the 117 Indian offenders of 2015, two were non-analytical ADRVs case. Out of the remaining 115 analytical ADRVs, 78 are committed by male athletes and 37 were female.
  • Among individual sports, weightlifting has reported highest positive doping tests with a whopping 56 Indian lifters (32 male and 24 female) punished for doping.
  • Athletics contributed second highest number of dope offenders with 21 (14 male and 7 female), followed by boxing (8), wrestling (8), cycling (4), kabaddi (4), aquatics (3), powerlifting (3), Judo (2), wushu (2), rowing, hockey (1), football (1) , bodybuilding (1) and street and ball hockey (1).

About World Anti-Doping Agency

  • WADA is global Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) that aims at harmonizing anti-doping regulations in all sports and countries. It is collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee.
  • It was established in 1999 in Lausanne Switzerland under so called Declaration of Lausanne to coordinate, promote and monitor the fight against drugs in sports. Its headquarters is in Montreal, Canada.

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