polio Current Affairs

Union Government launches IPV injection as part of global polio endgame strategy

The Union Government has launched inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) injection as part of the global polio endgame strategy in New Delhi.

The vaccine was launched by the Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare J P Nadda in New Delhi.

It was launched as part of India’s next step in Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) to fight against polio virus in the country.

IPV injections do not contain an attenuated vaccine virus which is used in oral polio vaccine (OPV). Thus it reduces the chances of Vaccine Derived Polio Virus (VDPV).

Key facts  

  • The launching of IPV would enable children to get double protection from polio i.e. orally and in the form of injection.
  • UIP initially will cover six states including Uttar Pardesh , Madhya Pardesh , Bihar, Assam, Punjab and Gujarat in the first phase.
  • By April 2016, Union Government would switch to IPV alongside the oral polio vaccine (OPV) to eradicate polio virus in the country.
  • Henceforth, as part of India’s efforts to boost its polio immunization programme babies getting their third dose of OPV now would be administered an injection with IPV.

It should be noted that India was certified polio-free country on 27 March 2014, but the immunization programme continues since two of its neighbours Afghanistan and Pakistan still remain polio-endemic countries.

About Polio virus

  • Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children below age of 5.
  • Transmission: The virus is transmitted from person-to-person. It mainly spreads through the faecal-oral route (e.g. contaminated water or food). After entering body, it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
  • Symptoms: Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In some cases, it causes permanent paralysis. There is no cure for polio virus, it can only be prevented by immunization.

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24 October: World Polio Day

World Polio Day is observed annually across the world on 24 October. The day seeks to create awareness about the hazards of the crippling Polio disease.

To mark this day, Rotary International has organised numerous events across different countries. It is also planning to make world Polio free by 2019 by stepping up its vaccination campaigns.

Global Campaign

Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) which was launched in 1988 has played pivotal role in eradication of wild poliovirus.  When the initiative was launched the wild poliovirus existed in 125 countries. Now, it exists in two countries Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Till 2012, Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country was the reservoir of more than half of the Polio cases in the world. But in 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) has removed Nigeria from the list of Polio endemic countries.

Background

  • World Polio Day has been established by Rotary International to commemorate the birth of Jonas Salk who had led the first team of researchers which had developed a vaccine against poliomyelitis.
  • This development had led to widespread use of this inactivated poliovirus vaccine and subsequently use of the oral poliovirus, developed by Albert Sabin.
  • It had led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 which has helped to reduce polio worldwide by 99%.

About Poliovirus

  • Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children below age of 5.
  • Transmission: The virus is transmitted from person-to-person. It mainly spreads through the faecal-oral route (e.g. contaminated water or food).
  • After entering body, it multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
  • Symptoms: Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In some cases, it causes permanent paralysis.
  • Treatment: There is no cure for polio, however it can only be prevented by immunization.

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