Scientists are working towards storing digital data in the base sequence of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid).
Thus they are seeking to make the genetic material capable to store data for long time in durable format as an archive data for the future.
DNA: information-storing molecule
DNA is by its essence an information-storing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living
These genetic instructions are passed from generation to generation by the genes. It basically transmits the blueprints for creating the human body.
How DNA store information?
The information in the DNA is stored in strings i.e. in the form four-letter DNA code. It is basically sequences of four building blocks (nuclear strands) abbreviated as A (Adenine), C (Cytosine), T (Thymine) and G (Guanine) found in DNA molecule. Specific sequences of these blocks give the body directions for creating particular proteins.
How can DNA carry Digital information?
- Basically digital devices store information in binary format (1s and 0s) i.e. in a two-letter code that produces strings of 1s and 0s. For ex. capital ‘A’ stored as 01000001 in binary format.
- In case of converting and storing digital information in DNA involves translating between the two sequences or codes of four building blocks. For ex. capital ‘A’ converted and stored as AATATG.
- The DNA digital data storage technology uses artificial DNA made using oligonucleotide synthesis machines for storage and DNA sequencing machines for retrieval of stored data.
- Using this technology strings of DNA can be custom-made that can carry the new code, and store information that code contains.
Advantages: DNA digital data storage technology has very long durability i.e. scientists can store digital information in DNA sequences for thousands of years. Information stored in DNA consumes very little space.
Challenges: Making this technology practical and much cheaper using current technology is hugely expensive.