Art & Culture Current Affairs
Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the National Salt Satyagraha Memorial at Dandi in Navsari district, Gujarat. The memorial is conceived as an experiential journey recreating the spirit and the energy of the 1930 Dandi March led by Mahatma Gandhi and 80 of his fellow Satyagrahis.
The memorial takes the visitors step by step through visualisation of events to aid them in understanding the methodology of Satyagraha, which finally led to India’s Independence from the British colonial rule.
The Memorial is the project of the Ministry of Culture, Government of India and is advised by a High-Level Dandi Memorial Committee (HLDMC) with IIT Bombay as a Design Coordination Agency.
Historical Background of the Salt Satyagraha
From the very beginning of British Rule in India, the salt tax was considered to be a good source of income. The beginning was made in the form of ‘land rent’ and ‘transit charges’, and in 1762, it was consolidated into duty.
As a result of the duty, India and in particular Bengal and its surrounding provinces were rendered dependent upon imported salt from Liverpool and elsewhere. The indigenous industry oppressed with the burden of extravagant charges was unable to compete with its English rival.
The salt tax/duties on the annual requirement of a family amounted at one time up to nearly two months’ wages of a labourer. The Indian National Congress from the very inception opposed the salt tax. Nationalist leaders such as Dadabhai Naoroji and GK Gokhale had particularly raised their voice against it.
Gandhiji had begun raising opposition to oppressive duties on common salt right from his student days in London. All these culminated in Gandhiji selecting Satyagraha against salt taxes as the key issue in 1930 while leading the civil disobedience movement for India’s freedom from the British colonial rule.
The Salt tax was chosen by Gandhi during the civil disobedience movement because it not only appeared to be basically unjust in themselves but also because it symbolised an unpopular, unrepresentative alien government.
Tags: Bengal • Dadabhai Naoroji • GK Gokhale • IIT Bombay • Ministry Of Culture
The Beating Retreat Ceremony marks the conclusion of Republic Day celebrations. Through this ceremony, the defence forces which had come to the national capital to be a part of Republic Day celebrations are sent back to their barracks by the President.
The Beating Retreat Ceremony is held every year on January 29th at Vijay Chowk. Traditionally the bands of the three wings of the military, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force, and pipe bands from the Army participated in the Beating retreat ceremony. From 2016 bands of the Central Armed Police Forces and the Delhi Police are also participating in the event.
The bands play traditional Indian tunes like ‘Herana Heran”, ”Mushkoh Valley”, ”Tejas”, ”The Great Marshal”, ”Namaste India”. A popular western tune ”Abide with me” would also be played by the bands. The ceremony comes to a conclusion with the popular tune ”Sare Jahan se Acha”. Once the bands conclude ”Sare Jahan se Acha”, the Raisina Hill complex would be lit up in the riot of colours.
Genesis in India
Beating Retreat is a centuries-old military tradition, at the sounding of retreat, the troops ceased fighting, sheathed their arms and withdrew from the battlefield, returning to their camps at sunset.
The Beating Retreat Ceremony was started in the early 1950s when the government had asked Indian army to design a ceremony for the display by the massed bands.