Constitution & Law Current Affairs - 2019
Summary of latest bill and acts passed or pending in 2019 in Parliament of India with their salient features and issues for Current Affairs 2019 preparation for various examinations such as UPSC, SSC, State Civil Services, CLAT, Judicial Services etc.
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Uruguay has become the first nation in the world to make it legal to grow, sell and consume marijuana. The country’s parliament has passed the government-sponsored bill which allows registered Uruguayans over 18 to buy up to 40g (1,4oz) of the drug a month.
Though possession of the drug is not a crime in the country, but with this legislation coming into effect in April 2014, the price of marijuana will be set at 1 dollar per gram, aiming to undercut the current price of $1.40 in the illegal market. A specialized body would be set up by the government to regulate the sale and production of the drug and it will administer a database of adult citizens registered to consume marijuana. The law would permit registered Uruguayans over the age of 18 to buy up to 40 grams of marijuana from pharmacies every month and cultivate a maximum of 6 plants on their property a year. The legislation will also permit for the creation of so-called cannabis clubs, composed of up to 45 members who will be able to grow a maximum of 99 plants a year.
Why Uruguay is legalizing marijuana trade?
The government of Uruguay intends to curb the market of illegal marijuana this new legislation as its previous attempts and policies have failed. The law is an experiment programme under which the government will sell the drug at a price lower than that in the illegal markets to defeat them and push them out of this business. It will also be able to tax the revenue generated from it. The whole programme will be regulated and administered by the government.
The project has drawn national and international criticism. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) has warned that the law would be in complete contravention to the provisions of the international drug treaties to which Uruguay is signatory. As per health experts, this move would encourage the drug market and would cause social damage as marijuana is highly addictive and is 15 times more carcinogenic than tobacco. It produces psychological disorders like depression, anxiety and – for heavy consumers – schizophrenia.
What is International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)?
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is an independent body of experts established by the United Nations to monitor countries’ compliance with international drug treaties.
The Supreme Court has asked Parliament to introduce appropriate amendments to the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, or enact a suitable legislation so that women and children born out of live-in relationships are protected, though those types of relationship might not be a relationship in the nature of a marriage.
As per apex court, children born out of such relationships suffer the most, which calls for bringing in remedial measures by the Parliament, through proper legislation.
According to court, though live-in relationship has not been accepted in India, it is neither illegitimate nor a sin. It further said relationship as a concubine, though not a relationship in the nature of a marriage, may at times, deserves protection because that woman might not be financially independent, but the DV Act, in its current form, is not concerned about such relationships which may perhaps necessitate an amendment of the definition of Section 2(f) of the DV Act, which is restrictive and exhaustive.
What was the case in point?
The apex court bench was hearing a case in which the appellant (female) had a live-in relationship with the respondent (male) who was already married with two children. She maintained the relationship for about 18 years and claimed maintenance amount under the DV Act. A trial court awarded Rs. 18,000 a month and this was upheld by a sessions court. However the Karnataka High Court set aside the order. The present appeal is directed against this ruling. The SC quashed the appeal and denied to interfere with the High Court order since the appellant was aware that the respondent was married when the relationship began.
While the court held that if it granted the relationship between the appellant and the respondent the status in the nature of a marriage, it would be an injustice to the legally wedded wife and children who opposed that relationship, it also pointed out that as a consequence of this, any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent in connection with that type of relationship, would not amount to ‘domestic violence’ under Section 3 of the DV Act.”