India Current Affairs [Gov. & Politics]
On August 8, 2020, India commemorated the 78th anniversary of Quit India movement. On August 8, 1942, Mahatma Gandhi launched Quit India Movement at the session of All India Congress Committee in Mumbai.
What is Quit India Movement?
The Quit India Movement was launched after Cripps mission failed. Gandhiji made a Do or Die call through the movement. India too was facing havoc due to World War. The movement was crushed as it didn’t get support from outside. The British refused to grant immediate independence saying it could happen only after the war ended.
About Quit India Movement
The Movement was also called the India August Movement or August Kranti. The movement created slogans such as “Bharat Chodo”, “Quit India”, “Do or Die”. The Quit India Resolution was passed in the Congress meet held in Bombay on 8th August 1942. The resolution had the following mandatories
- It demanded for an immediate end to British rule in India
- It declared commitment free India to defend itself against imperialism and fascism
- It demanded formation of provisional government of India after withdrawal of British
The following are the main causes of the launch of Quit India Movement
- The precursors of second world war had begun. In 1939, Japan that was a part of the Axis Powers opposed British gaining onto the north-eastern frontiers of India. Many of the Indian leaders believed that if British left India, Japan would have enough reasons to invade India.
- The Cripps Mission failed to provide constitutional remedy to India’s problems
The British Government arrested all major Congress leaders such as Nehru, Gandhi, Patel. This left the movement in hands of young leaders such as Ram Manohar Lohia and Jayaprakash Narayan. More than 1 lakh people were arrested. The Indian National Congress was banned.
There were certain parties that did not support the movement. This included Communist Party of India, Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha.
Tags: Cripps mission • fascism • Hindu Mahasabha • Indian National Congress (INC) • Mahatma Gandhi
Every year United Nations and other world organizations celebrate World Tribal Day or International Day of the World Indigenous People. The day promotes and protects rights of world indigenous population. The day marks first meet of the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations in Geneva, 1982.
This year the day is being observed under the following theme
Theme: COVID-19 and indigenous people resilience
The first World Tribal Day was celebrated in 1994. In India there are several indigenous tribes. Some have even sprouted out to be rebels demanding own land.
Major Tribes in India
The Constitution of India recognizes tribal communities in the country under Schedule 5. They are called the Scheduled Tribes. According to Census 2011, the total Scheduled Tribes population in India is 10.43 crores. It accounts to 8.6% of total population in the country.
Article 342 says that the President after consultation with the Governor of the state shall specify tribes or tribal communities or groups within tribal communities as Scheduled Tribes of that state.
The Santhal Rebellion also known as Santhal Hool are the native rebellion in the eastern India. The rebellion was led by four Murmu brothers namely Kanhu, Sidhu, Bhairav and Chand. The uprising aimed to end British revenue system and Zamindari system in the country
The Bodo Movement demands for independent state of Bodoland in the north eastern region. Bodo Accord was signed in 1993. After the Bodo Accord, Bodoland Autonomous Council was created.
Other Tribal movements in India
The other tribal movements in India are as follows
- The uprising of Mahadev Koli tribes in Maharashtra in the 18th century
- The Kurichya Rebellion organised by the people of Kurichyas in 1812
- The Bhil revolution in 1857-58
- The Koya tribal community in Andhra against landlords called “Muttade”
- The Bastar Revolution in 1910
- Kulki Uprising in Manipur
- Gond and Kolam revolution in collaboration against the British in 1941