Reports & Indices Current Affairs - 2020
This category comprises Current Affairs 2019-2020 related to various reports and indexes / indices by National and International Bodies and organizations such as World, Bank, World Economic Forum, NITI Aayog and various other educational and research organizations. We also place report highlights of various committees and commissions in this category.
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The World Health Organization on December 19, 2019, released its report on Global Tobacco use trends. According to the report, number of males using tobacco has declined globally for the first time. The report says that the anti-smoking campaigns all over the world is the main reason for the number of tobacco users to reduce.
Globally the number of tobacco users have declined by 60 million people. In 2000, the overall tobacco users were 1.397 billion and it has come down to 1.337 billion in 2018. The report says despite the reduction in numbers, the global target set by governments to reduce the use of tobacco by 30% by 2025 remains off track. So far only 32 countries are on track to reach the target.
Around 43 million children (of age 13-15) are using tobacco in 2018. The number of women using tobacco was 244 million. Of all the regions of the world, South East Asian region has the highest use of tobacco. The only region on track to achieve the target is the Americas.
According to the report, India is off track to achieve the target of 30% reduction by 2025 as compared to 2010 level. Along with India 163 countries are off the track.
However, the consumption rate in India is going down by 21.6% as compared to 2010. The current users of smokeless form of tobacco in India is estimated to be 257,020,000.
Tags: Cigarettes • India-WHO • Smoking • Tobacco • WHO
According to a latest report by US National Science Foundation (NSF), India has emerged as the world’s third largest publisher of science and engineering articles. As per the statistics compiled in report, China has topped the list followed by US.
Key Highlights of Report
China tops the list as it accounts for 20.67% of all global publications in scientific articles. In China, about 5,28,263 scientific articles were published in 2018. As per the report, China’s rate of research output has grown almost twice as fast as world’s annual average for last 10 years, while the output of US and European Union (EU) has grown at less than half world’s annual growth rate.
United States: follows China at second spot with about 4,22,808 global publications in science and engineering articles in 2018.
India: emerged as world’s third largest publisher of science and engineering articles after China (5,28,263) and US (4,22,808) in 2018, with about 1,35,788 science and engineering articles were published in country. Even though India has a long way to go as compared to US and China in terms of number of scientific article publications, its emergence as third largest publisher is mainly due to a phenomenal double-digit growth rate in last one decade from 2008 to 2018.
Top Ten: Other countries which made it to top 10 list are Germany (1,04,396), Japan (98,793), United Kingdom (97,681), Russia (81,579), Italy (71,240), South Korea (66,376) and France (66,352).
Global Output: Both China and India have increased their share of the growing world output. China produced 5% of global output in 2000 and grew to 21% in 2018, while India’s share rose from 2% to 5%t during this period.
Even though research papers from US and European Union (EU) continue to have the most impact, but, China has shown a rapid increase in producing impactful publications, as measured by references to journal articles and conference papers.
As measured by journal articles and conference papers, the Specialisation in scientific fields differs among countries. It shows that US, EU and Japan are more specialised in health sciences while China and India more specialised in engineering.
Tags: China • India • Indian Scientists • Report • Science and Engineering Articles