Science & Technology Current Affairs - 2020

Science & Technology Current Affairs 2019-2020 category comprises current affairs with all important national / international updates in science and tech and events for the year 2019-2020 for UPSC, States, Civil services, SSC and other competitive examinations of India and States.

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India among major victims of ‘Red October’

imageWhat is RED OCTOBER ?

 ‘Red October’ (or ‘Rocra’ for short) = A Cyber spying campaign (a cyber-espionage network) launched in 2007 by unidentified criminals that have been secretly stealing important data from many computer systems used by government agencies, military, nuclear, gas and oil industries, aerospace, private companies, etc. in many countries since 2007.

The cyber-espionage network has been uncovered by experts at Russia’s Kaspersky Lab. As per Kaspersky Lab, Russia’s multinational computer security company, the ‘Red October’ malware called Backdoor.Win32.Sputnik, has been stealing confidential data.

It has infected hundreds of victims around the world in 8 main categories:

  1. Government
  2. Diplomatic / embassies
  3. Research institutions
  4. Trade and commerce
  5. Nuclear / energy research
  6. Oil and gas companies
  7. Aerospace
  8. Military

The majority of infections are actually from the embassies of ex-USSR country members. India is one of the main victims of ‘Red October’ cyber espionage attack along with Russia which is the worst hit and many other countries like Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Belgium and the United States. Russia tops the list of countries with 38 detected infections, India ranks fifth with 14 infections. The United States is also on the list with 6 attacks. The Kaspersky Lab is continuing its investigation in collaboration with international law enforcement agencies and national Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERT).

Based on our Kaspersky Security Network (KSN) a list of countries with most infections (only for those with more than 5 victims):

  • Country-Infections
    RUSSIAN FEDERATION-35
    KAZAKHSTAN-21
    AZERBAIJAN-15
    BELGIUM-15
    INDIA-14
    AFGHANISTAN-10
    ARMENIA    10
    IRAN; ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF TURKMENISTAN-7
    UKRAINE-6
    UNITED STATES-6
    VIETNAM-6

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Source of Iodine oxide gas responsible for destruction of ozone over oceans identified

Scientists at the University of York and Leeds in Britain have established that the majority of ozone-depleting gas iodine oxide observed over the remote ocean comes from a previously unknown marine source. As per researchers, the main source of iodine oxide can be explained by emissions of hypoiodous acid (HOI) – a gas not yet considered as being released from the ocean – along with a contribution from molecular iodine.

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