Science & Technology Current Affairs - 2019
Science & Technology Current Affairs 2019-2020 category comprises current affairs with all important national / international updates in science and tech and events for the year 2019-2020 for UPSC, States, Civil services, SSC and other competitive examinations of India and States.
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Iran is ready to negotiate over the issue of its uranium enrichment programme. It has offered that it can put a 20% on uranium enrichment if it is assured a regular supply of nuclear fuel for its medical reactor that manufactures isotopes to treat cancer.
What is uranium enrichment?
- Naturally occurring Uranium is composed of two main isotopes and 235U. the percentage of 238U is 99.284% and 235U constitutes only about 0.711% of its weight.
- 235U is fissile with thermal neutrons.
- In order to produce nuclear bomb and naval propulsion highly enriched uranium is required.
- Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation. Enriched uranium is also called Oralloy.
What is highly enriched uranium?
- Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) has a greater than 20% concentration of 235U or 233U.
- The fissile uranium in nuclear weapons usually contains 85% or more of 235U known as weapon(s)-grade.
- The very first uranium bomb, Little Boy dropped on Hiroshima in 1945, used 64 kilograms of 80% enriched uranium.
The Human DNA Profiling Bill, to create a DNA data centre to profile people accused of serious crimes and unknown deceased is on the anvil.
- Proposal was considered in 2007, but then dropped down due to factor in ethical, moral and legal issues on the sensitive issues.
- The Bill is drafted by the Department of Biotechnology.
- The bill allows DNA profiling for cases of culpable homicide, murder, etc.
Does the bill cater to protecting privacy of individuals?
- The draft Bill envisages that access to the information in the National DNA Data Bank will be restricted to those related to the victim or suspect
- Establish a DNA Profiling Board to lay down the standards for laboratories, etc.
- Setting up a National DNA Data Bank.
How DNA analysis helps?
- DNA analysis makes it feasible to determine whether the source of origin of one body substance is identical to that of another, and to establish the biological relationship, if any, b/w two individuals.
- The biological material from which the DNA sample can be lifted includes blood, semen, or any other tissue fluid.
DNA Profiling Board
- DNA Profiling Board at the national level
- Similar structures at the State level.
- Headed by famous molecular biologists with the other members being from police, legal, biological and associated fields.
Functions of the DNA Profiling Board:
- Consider and suggest on all ethical and human rights issues rising out of DNA profiling in accordance with the UN vis-à-vis the rights and privacy of citizens, civil liberties and issues having ethical and other social implications.
- Make recommendations on the use and dissemination of DNA information.
- Assure the accuracy, security and confidentiality of DNA and guidelines destruction of obsolete, expunged or inaccurate information.
Any penalties for DNA data misuse?
- The Bill lays down guidelines for establishment and functioning of DNA laboratories and Data Banks.
- Lays guidelines for storage of biological substances and their destruction.
- Imprisonment up to 3 years and monetary fine on data misuse.
Month: Categories: Science & Technology