Science & Technology Current Affairs - 2019
Science & Technology Current Affairs 2019-2020 category comprises current affairs with all important national / international updates in science and tech and events for the year 2019-2020 for UPSC, States, Civil services, SSC and other competitive examinations of India and States.
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Japanese spacecraft, Hayabusa2 has surveyed the asteroid Ryugu’s surface and landed multiple robotic probes on its rocky terrain. The findings of the probe are:
- Asteroid Ryugu is far drier than expected. Ryugu is quite young (by asteroid standards), at around 100 million years old, this suggests its parent body was much largely devoid of water, too.
- Ryugu has an oblate “spinning top” shape, which suggests that the rocky body may have once spun at twice its current rate.
Hayabusa2 has completed the touchdown manoeuvre to collect samples from Ryugu’s surface, which will be brought back to Earth in a return capsule in late 2020.
Hayabusa2 is an asteroid sample-return mission of the Japanese space agency, JAXA. It is the successor of Hayabusa which had returned asteroid samples in 2010. Hayabusa2 arrived at Ryugu on 27 June 2018 and would survey the asteroid Ryugu for a year and a half during which time it will also collect samples. The mission plan is expected to depart in December 2019 and return the samples to Earth in December 2020.
Asteroid Ryugu is a near-Earth object and a potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group. Asteroid Ryugu is a primitive carbonaceous near-Earth asteroid. Asteroid Ryugu is expected to preserve the most pristine materials in the Solar System, a mixture of minerals, ice, and organic compounds that interact with each other. The studies of Asteroid Ryugu is expected to provide additional knowledge on the origin and evolution of the inner planets and, in particular, the origin of water and organic compounds on Earth and all relevant to the origin of life on Earth.
Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) has launched smart garbage bins made of stainless steel which integrates technology for smart waste management.
Smart Garbage Bins
- The Smart Garbage Bins will send signals to the garbage collection vehicle about the ‘fill-up’ position of the bin. This provides for better cleaning and lower human intervention.
- These Smart Garbage Bins made up of SAIL SALEM stainless steel will be installed in underground Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) pits at the Smart Garbage Station. This will help prevent the spread of stink and diseases.
- There will be separate bins for recyclable and non-recyclable wastes. The pits will be covered with a pit cover fabricated out of stainless steel slip-free sheets. Suitable openings on the pit cover will be provided to allow the sanitation crew to dump the collected garbage into the stainless steel bins placed underground.
- IOT (Internet of Things) enabled Gazelle sensors on the pit cover will transmit signals to the collection vehicle about the “fill-up” position.
- Compactor will lift the stainless steel bins from the underground pits and empty the garbage into the compactor vehicle.
Initially, these Smart Garbage Bins will be placed at one each at Kamala Nagar in North and BhikajiCama Place in South Delhi. SAIL is looking for other municipalities as well as metro cities to take this initiative further. SAIL is looking to take up production of stainless steel garbage bins on a commercial scale depending upon the response.