Science & Technology Current Affairs - 2020

Science & Technology Current Affairs 2019-2020 category comprises current affairs with all important national / international updates in science and tech and events for the year 2019-2020 for UPSC, States, Civil services, SSC and other competitive examinations of India and States.

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IMD: El Nino to be neutral; Normal Monsoon rains for India

On March 19, 2020, the Indian Meteorological Department announced that the El Nino Weather Phenomenon is to remain neutral this year between May and July. This will bring in normal rains to India during South West Monsoon.

The Indian Monsoon is greatly affected by the El Nino and La Nina Weather Phenomenon. The neutral event of the weather phenomenon is addressed as ENSO Oscillation.

ENSO Neutral: The Usual Weather System in the Pacific

The trade winds that flows from the east to west (from South America to Australia) pushes warm water from the off coast of South America towards Eastern Australia and Asia. The waters are warmed up as they are in the tropical zone of the earth receiving direct sun rays. The warm water rises the air and gives plentiful rainfall in the region of Australia and Asia.

Also, the piling up of warm water in the western Pacific in turn pushes the cold under ocean waters towards eastern side of the Pacific (towards South America). This is called upwelling. This makes the climate in the western coast of South America cool.

Monsoon and ENSO

The ENSO phenomenon strengthens the trade winds that give good rains to India during Monsoon. It is the trade winds that get deflected due to Corolis force and blow as south west monsoon.

The heating up of Himalayas during summer creates a low pressure in the region. This low pressure attracts the moist high-pressure winds in the equator. They are moist due to the ENSO phenomenon.

Therefore, India receives good rainfall when ENSO is neutral

What is El Nino?

During El Nino, the ocean waters in the western Pacific (near Australia) warms up. This breaks the warm waters from reaching the Australian coast. This is because, the oceanic temperature in the middle of the Pacific is greater than its coastal. Hence, water starts moving from Australian coast and South American Coast towards the centre of the ocean. Rainfall now occurs in this part of the ocean, making both the coasts dry. Hence, the trade winds reaching near Indian waters are dry as well. This weakens Indian Monsoon.

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NAVIC Messaging System for Fisheries Department

On March 17, 2020, the Department of Space reported at the Parliament that ISRO has designed NAVIC messaging system and receiver. The system is currently used by the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information system (INCOIS)


The system is used to broadcast emergency warning messages in cases such as tsunami, cyclone, high waves. The technology has been transferred by ISRO to 5 industries in India. One of them is the fisheries industry. ISRO has so far distributed 250 units of these systems to the coastal fishermen in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.


The NAVIC is Navigation in Indian Constellation. It is an Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS). Developed by ISRO. There are 8 satellites in the constellation. The main objective of NAVIC is to provide continuous surveillance of the Indian sub-continent.


The IRNSS provides two services namely Standard Positioning Services and Restricted Services. The Standard Positioning Services are provided to all users. On the other hand, restricted services are provided only to authorized users. The main applications of IRNSS include integration with mobiles, terrestrial aerial and marine navigation, precise timing, mapping, etc.


The systems will be carried by the fishermen. The device offers potential fishing zone advisories. This will help fishermen to stay within international boundaries. The system also gives warning about Oceanic wave forecasts and high wave alerts.

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