UPSC Current Affairs - 2019

Latest Current Affairs 2018-2019 for UPSC IAS / Civil Services Examination. This category comprises the current affairs short notes useful primarily for UPSC preliminary examination and upsc mains as well as state civil services examinations.

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Chinese President conferred Kyrgyzstan’s Highest National Award

Chinese President Xi Jinping was conferred with highest national award of Kyrgyzstan titled Manas Order of the First Degree in Bishkek (capital of Kyrgyzstan). Kyrgyzstan is hosting 19th Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit starting 14 June 2019.

Key Highlights

Sooronbay Jeenbekov, President of Kyrgyzstan awarded the country’s highest national prize to the Chinese counterpart (Xi Jinping) who is on a state visit to Kyrgyzstan and to take part in two-day 19th SCO summit.

Kyrgyz’s President reiterated his beilief that current Xi’s visit will open up a new chapter of bilateral ties between two countries.

Significance: President Jeenbekov, appreciated Xi’s special contributions to development of Kyrgyzstan-China comprehensive strategic partnership and acknowledged that Kyrgyzstan will never forget China’s long-running support and assistance.

China’s Response:

In response to the honour conferred, President Xi highlighted that medal has fully demonstrated Kyrgyz people’s profound friendship towards Chinese people and that China values it very much.

Xi showcased China’s readiness in joining hands with Kyrgyzstan so as to deepen traditional friendship between two countries and also towards pushing forward Kyrgyzstan-China comprehensive strategic partnership for new bilateral achievements which will benefit the people of two countries.

About Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

It is a Eurasian political, economic and security alliance in which China plays an influential role.

The founding member of SCO includes China, Russia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

India and Pakistan were admitted to Beijing-based regional security grouping in 2017.

The year 2019 will see the 19th SCO summit which is being hosted by Kyrgyzstan.

Month: Categories: Awards & HonoursUPSC


DRDO test fires Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle

India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted maiden test of an indigenously developed Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) from launch pad number-4 of Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Abdul Kalam Island off Odisha Coast.


It is an unmanned scramjet demonstration aircraft. It is designed to cruise at Mach 6 speed with scramjet engine.

Background: In 2008, DRDO stated that through HSTDV project idea was to demonstrate performance of a scram-jet engine at an altitude of 15 km to 20 km, is on. Thus under this project, DRDO developed a hypersonic vehicle that will be powered by a scram-jet engine.

Applications: HSTDV is dual-use technology thus with a scramjet engine, HSTDV can cruise at Mach 6 speed and can have multiple civilian applications. It can be used for launching satellites at low cost and can also be available for long-range cruise missiles of future.

Key Highlights of Test

Method: In test conducted, a missile mounted with technology demonstrator vehicle is launched and vehicle is released only after missile reaches a certain altitude and velocity.

Reason for launch: The launch of technology demonstrator vehicle was undertaken to prove a number of critical technologies for futuristic missions and to validate several technologies including HSTDV.

Analysis: The HSDTV was supposed to fire and fly on its own after being carried to an altitude of around 30-40 km by solid rocket motor of an Agni-I ballistic missile in test but after launch, Agni-I booster went into an uncontrolled mode and could not achieve desired altitude. Some technologies have been validated while some remained inconclusive of which data is being analysed.

Scram-jet system v/s Ram jet system

In scram-jet technology, fuel combustion takes place in a chamber in missile at supersonic speeds while in a ram jet system, the system collects air it needs from atmosphere during flight at subsonic speeds and propellants burn in combustion chamber.

Month: Categories: Defence & SecurityUPSC