India’s first underwater Metro: To begin in March 2022 in Kolkata
The first underwater Metro is being constructed in Hooghly river. The project is awaiting clearance of 2.8 million USD from the Indian Railways.
The Hooghly Metro is one of the oldest Metro in the country. It was started in 1984. The new under water tunnel will carry 20% of city’s population and will cross the river in less than a minute. Currently it takes 20 minutes in the ferry to cross the river and an hour to cross the Howrah bridge.
Infrastructure and Environment
While the infrastructural developments are increasing exponentially, it is important to check their effects on environment. According to World Wide Funds, by 2050 the Earth will hold 75% more infrastructure than that it does today. Therefore, it is essential to study their Environmental impacts and take necessary alternate actions to protect the environment.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
According to United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), EIA is the evaluation of environmental impacts and also cultural, human-health and socio-economic impacts of a proposed project.
EIA in India
EIA in India began in 1976. However, it was an administrative decision till 1994. In 1994 Environmental (Protection) act, 1986 was amended to provide legislative support to EIA process