Current Affairs - January, 2019

Latest Current Affairs January, 2019 with Current Affairs, news summary on current events of National and International importance of January, 2019 for Banking, SSC, CLAT, UPSC, State PCS, IBPS, Railways and other Competitive Examinations.

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Global Risks Report

The Global Risks Report 2019 of the World Economic Forum (WEF) describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies global catastrophic risks. The report also examines the interconnectedness of risks and considers how the strategies for the mitigation of global risks might be structured.

Findings of the Report

The Global Risks Report 2019 was prepared based on the survey of nearly 1,000 experts and decision-makers from across the world. The findings of the Global Risks Report 2019 are:

  • The top-five risk trends identified by the Survey are changing climate; rising cyber dependency; increasing polarisation of societies; rising income and wealth disparity; and increasing national sentiment.
  • The list of biggest risks to likelihood is topped by extreme weather events such as floods and storms, followed by failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation, major natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption and geomagnetic storms; the massive incident of data fraud/theft; and large-scale cyber attacks.
  • The top-five risks by impact, facing the world are weapons of mass destruction; failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation; extreme weather events; water crises; and major natural disasters.
  • Rising geopolitical and geo-economic tensions are the most urgent risk in 2019.
  • A darkening economic outlook partly due to geopolitical tensions would further reduce the potential for international cooperation in 2019.
  • Environmental degradation is the long-term risk that defines the present age and four of the top five most impactful global risks in 2019 being related to climate.
  • Rapidly evolving cyber and technological threats are the most significant potential blind spots. The world is still not fully appreciating the vulnerability of networked societies.
  • The report warns about growth in 2019 getting held back by continuing geo-economic tensions, with 88 per cent of respondents expecting further erosion of multilateral trading rules and agreements.

The report calls to renew the architecture of international cooperation for tackling the global trade and economic growth risks. The report presses on the need of coordinated, concerted action to sustain growth and to tackle the grave threats facing the world today.

Month: Categories: International Current Affairs 2018UPSC Current Affairs - 2019

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What is Collegium System of Appointment of Judges?

The Supreme Court Collegium is the panel of judges vested with the responsibility of appointments and elevations of Chief Justices and judges of the Supreme Court and high courts of the country.

The Collegium for the appointment of Judges of Supreme Court is headed by the Chief Justice of India and comprises of the four other senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. The decisions of the collegium are made through voting and the majority view prevails in case of difference of opinion.

Constitutional Provisions for the Appointment of Judges

The constitution of India provides for the following provisions for the appointment of judges:

  • Article 124(2) of the Indian Constitution provides that the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President after consultation with such number of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.
  • Article 217 of the Indian Constitution states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.

How Collegium came into existence?

The system of appointment and transfer of judges by collegium has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court, and not by an act of the Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution, which are famously referred as Three-Judge Case.

  • In the First Judges Case of 1980, the Supreme Court had declared that there was no need to provide primacy for the opinion of the Chief Justice of India while recommending a candidate to the President.
  • This judgment was over-ruled in 1993 when the nine-judge bench ruled in favour of granting primacy to the Chief Justice of India in appointing the key members of the top judicial brass. This is referred to as second judge case.
  • Things were clarified in the third judge case which was the Presidential reference to the Supreme Court on what the term “consultation”, implies which the President was required to do with judges before selecting a judge, referred to in the Constitution. In reply, SC laid down nine guidelines for the functioning of the

As a result in the process of appointment of Judges to the High Courts and Supreme Courts, the role of the President is reduced to the ceremonial participant. The attempt by the central government to constitute the National Judicial Appointments Commission through constitutional amendment act as per the recommendations of the Justice MN Venkatachaliah Commission was also quashed by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional.

Month: Categories: India Current Affairs 2018UPSC Current Affairs - 2019

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