Current Affairs – November, 2013

Latest Current Affairs November, 2013 with Current Affairs, news summary on current events of National and International importance of November, 2013 for Banking, SSC, CLAT, UPSC, State PCS, IBPS, Railways and other Competitive Examinations.

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U.S. food authority to ban trans fat

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to ban the heart-clogging trans fats. As per FDA, although manufacturers already have eliminated many trans fats, the average American still eats around a gram of trans fat a day eliminating which could prevent 20,000 heart attacks and 7,000 deaths each year. Keeping this in mind, the FDA would determine a phase-out timetable in a few months.

What is Trans Fat?

Trans-isomer fatty acids, or trans fats, are a type of unsaturated fat, which is uncommon in nature but can be easily created artificially. These trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acids are sometimes mono-unsaturated or polyunsaturated due to the presence of  a double carbon–carbon bond, but they are never saturated.

How they are formed?

Trans fats are formed during the processing of polyunsaturated fatty acids in food manufacturing. The fats are created when hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it more solid, which is why they are often called partially hydrogenated oils. In plants and animals, fatty acids generally have cis (as opposed to trans) unsaturations.

Trans fats are used both in processed food and in restaurants, often to improve the texture, shelf life or flavour. The fats are found in some baked goods such as pie crusts and biscuits and in ready-to-eat frostings.

Why trans fat is harmful to our health?

In humans, consumption of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of the lipoprotein LDL (“bad cholesterol”) and lowering levels of the lipoprotein HDL (“good cholesterol”).

Uttarakhand to get $450 million loan from World Bank and ADB

A loan of $450 million has been approved by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank for post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation in Uttarakhand. The WB and the ADB will provide $250 million and $200 million, respectively. Both the banks are working on identification and implementation of the project components on which the $450 million will be spent.

How these funds from WB and ADB will be utilized?
Utilization of WB Funds:

Loan from the WB will be used to build bridges and village roads that were damaged during the calamity. A significant portion of funds will also be spent towards strengthening of the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) by capacity building. The State disaster management system will conduct river morphology studies and will also install an early warning system and disaster risk mitigation system. A part of WB funds will be spent on housing projects. It will fund rebuilding of houses that were damaged during disaster.

Utilization of ADB Funds:

The ADB funds will be used for four components:

  1. Reconstruction of State highways and major district roads.
  2. Reconstruction of properties belonging to the tourism department which were damaged in the disaster.
  3. Construction of a helipad network in the State as helicopters helped in saving thousands of lives during the disaster.
  4. Restoration of the urban drinking water supply which was disrupted after the disaster.