January 24: National Girl Child Day

India celebrates National Girl Child Day on January 24 annually. It was initiated by Ministry of Women and Child Development in 2008.

Highlights

The aim of the day is to spread awareness about inequalities faced by girls in the country. It also promotes awareness about rights of girl child. Also, it increases importance of health, education and nutrition of girl child.  The National Girl Child Day also spreads various atrocities faced by girls in their lives. The international day of girl child is celebrated on October 11 every year.

Need

Girls in India face humiliation, discrimination and oppression. According to CRY (Child Rights and You) India is the home of more than one-third child brides in the world. There are more than 10 million child brides in the world, They are forced into marriage before the legal age of 18

Sex Ratio

Sex Ratio is the ratio of male to female population. Sex ratio of the entire world is 101 males to 100 females (2018 estimate). In India according to the Census 2011, the sex ration was 108.9. It has been increasing since 1961. It was 102.4 in 1961, 104.2 in 1980 and 107.5 in 2001.

The natural sex ratio for a society should be between 103 and 107. However, in India it is higher in western and north western states such as Haryana, Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir. The eastern and southern states have normal sex ratio.

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“Vyom Mitra”-ISRO’s half Humanoid-An experimental mission of Gaganyaan

ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is to send a half-humanoid robot called the “Vyom Mitra” as an experimental mission to Gaganyaan. Vyom Mitra means a friend in Sky.

Highlights

ISRO introduced Vyom Mitra at the “Human Space Flight and Exploration-Present Challenges and Future Trends” seminar that was held in Bengaluru. The robot is to fly in two unmanned mission that are planned in December 2020 and in June 2021.

About Vyom Mitra

The robot can speak two languages namely Hindi and English. It can mimic human activities such as recognizing other humans and responding to their queries. The robot can handle switch panel operations. It is also capable of providing air pressure change warnings.

Gaganyaan mission

In order to make the first human space flight programme, Gaganyaan successful, ISRO has been taking several initiatives. The food for the astronauts is being developed by the Defence Food Research Laboratory. The astronauts to travel to space received their training in Russia.

Gaganyaan Mission was first recommended by ISRO’s Policy Planning Committee in 2004. In 2006, the preliminary studies under the name “Orbital Vehicle” began. In 2008, the design to carry two astronauts was finalized. In 2014, the testing of the launch vehicle GSLV-Mk III was successful. In 2018, the pad abort test was conducted and succeeded by ISRO scientists. In 2019, astronauts completed their training in Russia.

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