Pakistan: First Country to introduce WHO approved Typhoid Vaccine

Pakistan becomes the first country to introduce WHO approved typhoid vaccine. The Vaccine is to be used in southern Sindh province as more than 10,000 cases of Typhoid were documented since 2017.


  • A four-week campaign will be conducted targeting 10 million children of age nine months to 15 years. The campaign is launched with the support of Geneva based Gavi Vaccine alliance. The Gavi Vaccine Alliance is backed by several global organization such as World Bank, WHO, UNICEF, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to lower vaccine costs for poor countries.
  • In 2017 around 70% of deaths due to typhoid were among children. This is mainly because, Pakistan spends meagre amount of its national resources on public health
  • Pakistan is suffering from drug-resistant typhoid fever since November 2016. The Salmonella Typhi bacteria that causes Typhoid is called a super-bug in the country as it has developed resistance towards old drugs.

Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine

The TCV was recommended by WHO in 2018 for infants and children over 6 months of age in typhoid-endemic countries. As compared to earlier vaccines, TCV provides long-lasting protection and requires fewer dosages.

The Vaccine is funded by the United Nations Children Fund (UNCF).


  • Typhoid impacts young children in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Middle-East.
  • In these regions, the disease if caused due to unsafe water and sanitation systems and inadequate drinking water.

DPIIT establishes Development Council for Bicycle

Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) under Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry has set up a Development Council for Bicycle. The council has been constituted for a period of two years. It will stimulate value chain and fuel accelerated demand growth of Make-in-India.

About Development Council for Bicycle

Mandate: It has been setup for vision planning in design, engineering as well as manufacturing bicycles which are comparable with global standards for exports and domestic market.

Members: The 23-member Council will be headed by Secretary DPIIT and will have 9 ex-officio members from DPIIT and Department of Commerce, Ministries of-Health and Family Welfare, Housing and Urban Affairs, Road Transport and Highways, Environment Forest and Climate Change, Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). It will also have seven expert domain members and four nominated. The terms of ex-officio members shall be co-terminus with their official posting while others members may be co-opted, as required, by Chairperson of the Council.

Council Agendas:

Improving competitiveness and level of services. For this council will undertake measures to leverage bicycle demand by ensuring enabling safe and segregated cycling infrastructure as well as transforming Indian bicycle technology (and its value chain).

Undertaking continuous stakeholder persuasion as well as enhancing export competitiveness of bicycle. This will be achieved through support of schemes and favourable trade policies to popularize benefits of cycling via campaigns piloted by concerned ministries.

Developing medium and small industries along with growth of skilled human resources for bicycle manufacturing and repair shops.

Identifying and studying best international practices to adopt for bicycle manufacturing, recycling and infrastructure development in India.