Japan marks 75 years of atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

On August 6, 2020, Japan marks the 75th anniversary of the world’s first atomic bomb attack on the city of Hiroshima.

Highlights

In 1945, the United States warplane Enola Gay dropped an atom bomb named “Little Boy” in the city of Hiroshima killing 140,000 people. Three days later, on August 9, the United States dropped another atom bomb “Fat Man” in Nagasaki that killed more than 40,000 people.

The survivors of the bomb are known as “Hibakushas”. The Hibakushas experienced long-term effects and elevated risks of thyroid cancer and leukemia.

Why the atom bomb?

The relations between Japan and the USA worsened after the end of World War II in 1945. This was mainly because, the Japanese forces decided to capture oil rich areas of the East Indies. Thus, US President Harry Truman authorised to drop the bomb to make Japan surrender in the war, which it did.

Why Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

The USA chose the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki targeting military production of the country. The main aim was to destroy ability of Japan to fight wars. Hiroshima was one of the army headquarters of Japan. Also, it was the largest military supply depot for troops and supplies.

Nagasaki, on the other hand was one of the largest seaports in southern Japan. It was of great wartime importance for its wide-ranging industrial activity in military equipment, production of ordnance, ships and other war materials.

Quebec Agreement

The Agreement was signed in 1943 by the US and UK to pool their resources to develop nuclear weapons. The countries under the agreement also agreed that neither of the countries would use the nuclear weapons against each other.

First Nuclear Weapon Testing

Before dropping the bomb in the cities of Japan, the US did test its nuclear weapons. The nuclear weapons were tested at the Trinity site on July 16, 1945. The testing was a part of the Manhattan Project

Manhattan Project

The project was a Research and Development programme conducted by USA, UK and Canada. It was led by USA. The project aimed to develop first nuclear weapons to be used in world war II.

India contributes 15 million USD to India-UN Development Partnership Fund

On August 5, 2020, India contributed 15.46 million USD to the India-UN Development Partnership Fund.

Highlights

India has contributed the funds to the United Nations Office for South-south Cooperation (UNOSSC) as a permanent representative of the UN. Of this, 9.46 million USD has been dedicated to the Commonwealth countries and 6 million USD to the overall fund.

India-UN Development Partnership Fund

The fund is managed by UNOSSC. It was established in 2017. The Fund supports developing countries in achieving their 2030 Agenda of Sustainable Development. Currently, there are 36 projects being implemented in 37 countries with the help of the fund.

The fund mainly focuses on the development of Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and small Island Developing States.

So far, India has contributed 41.8 million USD towards the fund. India has committed 150 million USD towards the funds in the next decade.

First Project of the Fund

The first project under the India-UN Development Partnership Fund focussed on increase in resilence to natural disasters in six Pacific Island nations. They are Kirbati, Cook Islands, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Micronesia, Solomon Islands. It also included Kingdom of Tonga.

UNOSSC

The UNOSSC is hosted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It was established in 1974 by the United Nations General Assembly. It promotes, coordinates and supports South-South cooperation globally and also within United Nations.

South-South Cooperation

The South-South Cooperation is the technical cooperation among developing countries. There are other terms of cooperation in the UN. They are as follows

North-South Cooperation

The North-South Cooperation is the social, economic and political cooperation between a developed and a developing country. The terms north and south are being used as most of the countries in the northern hemisphere are developed and those in the southern hemisphere are developing.

Triangular Cooperation

The Triangular cooperation involves three actors such as one from the north and two from the south.