Current Affairs Today - Current Affairs 2017

हिंदी करंट अफेयर्स प्रश्नोत्तरी 2017 के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें.

INS Kalavari: India’s first home built submarine handed over to Indian Navy

India’s first ingenuously built INS Kalavari submarine was handed over to Indian Navy by state-owned Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

This is Indian Navy’s first new conventional submarine in two decades. Its induction will be landmark milestone in India’s bid to build its underwater warfare capabilities with an eye on China and Pakistan.

Key Facts

INS Kalavari is first of six Scorpion class submarines built in India under Project-75 by Mazagon Docks Limited with technology transfer from France’s DCNS (Direction des Constructions Navales Services), a naval shipbuilder.

It is diesel electric attack submarine named after tiger shark. It is stealth submarine difficult to be detected by the enemy and is designed to operate in all theatres including the tropics. It weighs 1,550 tonnes and is equipped with six 533-millimeter torpedo tubes for launching anti-ship torpedoes, anti-ship missiles, and sea mines.

It can undertake various operations including multifarious warfare, Anti-submarine warfare, Intelligence gathering, mine laying, area surveillance etc. It can launch attack on the enemy using precision guided weapons and attack can be launched from underwater or on surface. It can launch attack on the enemy using precision guided weapons and attack can be launched from underwater or on surface.

Background

France’s DCNS was awarded $4.16 billion contract to build six next generation Scorpion class submarines in cooperation with Mazagon Docks Limited in 2005 under the strategic Project-75. All six submarines will be fitted with indigenous Air Independent Propulsion System (AIP) technology developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to extend their endurance.  AIP module enables conventional submarines to remain underwater for longer duration, greatly increasing their stealth characteristics. The second Scorpene submarine in the series, INS Khanderi was launched in January 2017 after the ghost of data leak which threatened to derail project in August 2016.

Scorpene data leak

The Scorpene data leak saw 22,400 documents expose secret stealth capabilities of submarines, diving depths, and specifications of torpedo launch systems among other details. A preliminary investigation later revealed the leak took place at the French office of DCNS and not in India.

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Scientists create world’s first molecular robot

Scientists from University of Manchester have created world’s first ‘molecular robot’ — millionth of a millimetre in size. It can be used to build molecules and may help discover novel drugs.

Key Facts

The molecular robot is millionth of millimetre in size. It is made up of just 150 carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms which are basic building blocks required to form molecules. It can be programmed to move and build molecular cargo using a tiny robotic arm.

The molecular robot operates by carrying out chemical reactions in special solutions which can then be controlled and programmed by scientists to perform the basic tasks. It responds to series of simple commands that are programmed with chemical inputs.

Each individual robot is capable of manipulating single molecule. In terms of size context, billion of these molecular robots piled on top of each other will be only same size as a single grain of salt.

Significance: The molecular robot is so small, that it massively reduces demand for materials, dramatically reduce power requirements and can accelerate and improve drug discovery and rapidly increase the miniaturisation of other products.

Potential applications: Such molecular robots can be used for medical purposes, advanced manufacturing processes and even building molecular factories and assembly lines.

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