JE Vaccine (JENVAC) : India’s first indigenously produced Japanese Encephalitis vaccine launched

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India launched its first fully indigenously produced vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis (JE), a mosquito-borne viral infection that affects the central nervous system.

The vaccine named JENVAC has been jointly developed by the National Institute of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research and Bharat Biotech Ltd. under the public-private-partnership model for the prevention and control of JE and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) that has killed more than 3000 people since last three years in the eastern part of India. JE Vaccine (JENVAC) is not only the first fully indigenous vaccine, but it is also based on an Indian strain.

The Immunization Programme against Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES):

The immunization programme will be implemented in 60 priority districts for a period of 5 years as part of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of JE and AES. Of 171 endemic districts in India, 118 districts are covered under JE immunization programme that has about Rs. 4000 crore outlay. Initially the programme will focus on 5 worst affected states— Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. JE kills around 1000 persons in a year, particularly between the months of July and October. India currently imported its stock of live JE vaccine from China.

What is Japanese Encephalitis?

Japanese Encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral disease. It leads to acute inflammation of the Brain.

What are the reservoirs and vectors of this virus? 
  •  Domestic pigs and wild birds (herons) are reservoirs of the virus.
  • Amongst the most important vectors of this disease are the mosquitoes Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui.
 Symptoms:
  • Abrupt onset of high fever
  • Headache
  • Behavioral changes
  • Paralyses
  • Unconsciousness, even slipping into coma

Month:  Categories: Governance & Politics

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India re-elected to ICAO Council

India has been re-elected to the new Council of International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) as one of the states making the largest contribution in facilitating global air navigation. The elections were held at the 38th session of the Assembly of ICAO in Montreal.

What is ICAO?

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International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)

Estblished: 1944, as a specialized agency of the United Nations to promote the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation throughout the world.

Functions: It sets standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety, security, efficiency, capacity and environmental protection, apart from serving as the forum for cooperation in all fields of civil aviation among its 191 member states.

Term of the Council3 years
No. of Member:   36 members
Categories:   3 categories. 

The Structure of present Council is as follows:
  • PART I – (States of chief importance in air transport) – Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and the United States. All of them have been re-elected.
  • PART II –  (States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation) – Argentina, Egypt, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain and Venezuela. Except Norway, Portugal and Venezuela, all others have been re-elected.
  • PART III– (States ensuring geographic representation)- Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chile, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Libya, Malaysia, Nicaragua, Poland, Republic of Korea, United Arab Emirates and United Republic of Tanzania. Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Libya, Nicaragua, Poland and United Republic of Tanzania have been elected for the first time.

Month:  Categories: International

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