1963 Vienna Convention Current Affairs - 2020
International Court of Justice (ICJ) has directed Pakistan to review conviction order of Kulbhushan Jadhav and, until then, put his death sentence on hold. ICJ also asked Islamabad to allow New Delhi consular access at earliest. This is a major diplomatic and legal victory for India in Kulbhushan Jadhav case.
Key Highlights of Judgement
In a 15-1 decision, ICJ has asked Pakistan to review conviction, sentencing of Jadhav and provide him consular access. This effectively means is that death sentence awarded to Jadhav by a military court in Pakistan is put on hold until probably a civil court, where accused will have better representation, hears the case afresh.
Pak Violated Vienna Convention: ICJ upheld that Islamabad had violated Article 36 of Vienna Convention of Consular Relations, 1963, by not informing India about Jadhav’s arrest immediately after Pakistan Army had taken him into custody.
ICJ found that India had been deprived of ‘right to communicate with and have access to Jadhav, to visit him in detention and to arrange for his legal representation’, which meant that Pakistan had breached obligations incumbent upon it under Article 36, paragraph 1 (a) and (c), of Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. The provisions of 1963 Vienna Convention define a framework for consular relations between countries.
Kulbhushan Jadhav Case
Kulbhushan Jadhav (49), a retired Indin Navy officer, was allegedly arrested by Pakistani security forces on 3 March 2016, while India was informed on March 25.
Claims by Pakistan: Jadhav was arrested in Pakistan’s restive province of Balochistan (near the Pak-Afghan border of Chaman) in 2016. He is accused of terrorism, spying, and fomenting trouble in Balochistan. Later in 2017 he was sentenced to death by a Pakistani military court in 2017. Pakistan has constantly accused India of supporting Baloch separatists is seeing Jadhav’s capture as proof of India’s involvement in unrest.
Claims by India: India acknowledged that Jadhav was an Indian national, who had been kidnapped by Pakistani agents from Iran, where he had gone on a business trip after his retirement from Indian Navy.
In May 2017, India approached the Hague-based ICJ, which restrained Pakistan from executing Jadhav till adjudication of case.
ICJ verdict in Jadhav’s case comes nearly 5 months after a 15-member bench of ICJ, headed by Judge Yusuf, reserved its decision on 21 February 2019 post hearing oral submissions by India and Pakistan. The proceedings in case lasted 2 years and 2 months.