Andhra Pradesh [APPSC] Current Affairs - 2020

Vice President calls for protecting Ongole Cattle Breed

The Vice President of India, M. Venkaiah Naidu called for protecting and promoting the indigenous Ongole cattle breed. He also released a Compendium on Ongole breed of cattle at the Swarna Bharat Trust in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh.

Key Highlights

  • Vice President Naidu asserted that cattle wealth was national wealth. He pointed out that Brazil which had imported these cattle and now produced hybrid Ongoles is gaining huge revenue through its export.
  • As per him, India do not focus enough attention on its own indigenous breed and now the time has come for promoting Ongole cattle breed and also to take up research on animal.
  • He asked concerned officials to expedite the works at National Kamadhenu Breeding Centre, Chintaladevi in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Agriculture: Vice President Naidu observed that Indian agriculture is facing many challenges thus stressed need for taking up multi-pronged efforts from all concerned stakeholders to making agriculture sustainable, more profitable and to double farmer’s income. He also urged farmers to take up in house dairy and backyard poultry for fetching additional income source.

About Compendium

  • The Compendium released by Vice President Naidu has 1200-page which traces history of animal, from year 1885 to 2016. It provides information from 13 books and 80 research findings on Ongole Cattle. Agricultural scientist, Mullapudi Narendranath and former Joint Director of Animal Husbandry Department, Adusumilli Madhusudan Rao were credited for compilation of the Compendium.

About Ongole Cattle Breed

  • Nomenclature: The breed derives its name from the name of a place called ‘Ongole’, which occupies a small area between Gundlakamma and Musi rivers in Andhra Pradesh. It is also nicknamed as ‘Nelore cattle’ as Ongole was once part of the Nellore area.
  • Indigenous Breed: Ongole cattle are indigenous to Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh in India.
  • Worldwide Demand: The ongole bull has great demand all over the world. In Brazil, population of Ongole off-breed is around several millions. The USA’s famous ‘Santa Gertrudis breed’ also have Ongole blood. They are used in bull fights not only in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, but also in Mexico and some parts of East Africa.
  • Features: They are known for their toughness, high milk yield, rapid growth rate, tolerance to tropical heat and natural resistance to both foot and mouth disease (FMD) and mad cow disease.

ISRO to launch Radar Imaging Satellite ‘RISAT 2BR1’ by end of May 2019

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) announced its plans to launch its latest radar imaging reconnaissance satellite ‘RISAT 2BR1’ towards the end of May 2019. Its launch was earlier scheduled in 2020 after RISAT-2A but is now preponed.

About Launch

  • The RISAT (radar imaging satellite), will be carried by PSLV-C46. It is one of the reusable variants of ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket, which have offered significant progress and technology sophistication in terms of advancement in space technologies. The designation ‘C-46’ is as per ISRO’s numbering system.
  • It would depart from first launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

About Risat Series

  • On 20 April 2009, RISAT-2 was deployed in orbit prior to RISAT- 1.
  • This was because following 2008 Mumbai terror attacks Indian forces were in dire need of round the clock surveillance. As RISAT- 1’s C-band SAR radar was not yet ready so RISAT -2 was launched carrying Israeli built X-band radar.
  • Therefore ‘RISAT-2’ was deployed before RISAT-1. Its main sensor is X-band synthetic aperture radars (SAR) which provided Indian defence forces all-weather surveillance for monitoring national borders to notice any potential threat or malicious activity and to carry out anti-infiltration and anti-terrorist operations.
  • RISAT-1 was successfully launched on 26 April 2012 for a period of five years. It is first indigenous microwave remote sensing satellite designed and developed by ISRO. It was launched by PSLV-C19 into sun’s synchronous orbit at an altitude of 536 km.
  • It was not designed as a surveillance satellite as it relied on the C-band. Its data was extensively used for applications like natural resources management, in areas of agriculture planning, mainly paddy monitoring in kharif season, forestry surveys and disaster management support, during natural disasters like floods and cyclones.
  • About to be deployed RISAT-2BR1 satellite uses same SAR band and will further improve India’s imaging reconnaissance (surveillance) abilities.


The RISAT series by ISRO are first all-weather earth observation satellites. These Radar imaging satellites are designed to all-weather surveillance using synthetic aperture radars (SAR) i.e. they provide a continuous (24×7) view of earth day or night and even during bad weather for defence forces to detect infiltration along border.