Archaeological Sites Current Affairs - 2020
The Archaeological Survey team has recently claimed that a 500 year old temple that submerged in the waters of Mahanadi resurfaced.
The Mahanadi river that changed its course 150 years due to flooding had submerged the Padmabati village where the temple is located.
There are more than 22 villages in the region that are submerged in the waters of Mahanadi. However, Gopinath Deba Temple was visible as it is the tallest of all.
The temple is called “Mastaka”.
The Mastaka was visible 11 years back when the water levels were very low. The Mastaka was found while the Archaeological team of Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) was documenting the monuments along the course of river Mahanadi.
The Mastaka is the upper part of the temple. Only the Mastaka of the temple was visible.
The river flows through the states of Odisha and Chhattisgarh. The famous Hirakud dam is located across the river. The Hirakud dam is the largest earthen dam in the world.
Tags: Archaeological Sites • Chhattisgarh • Flood • Hirakud Dam • Mahanadi River
Budget 2020: Caring Society: Women and Child, Social Welfare, Culture & Tourism, Env & Climate Change
On February 1, 2020, the Finance Minister Nirmala Sitaraman presented the Budget 2020 on three main themes. The third theme of the budget is Caring Society. Under this theme, the GoI allocated budget to Women and Child, Social Welfare and Tourism, Environment and Climate Change.
The Budget allocated for the above sections of the society are as follows
Women and Child and Social Welfare
Under the Beti Bachao Beti Padao, the Gross Enrolment ratio of girls is higher than boys. Their enrollment is as follows
- At Elementary level, girls’ enrollment is 94.32% and boys’ is 89.28%
- At secondary level, girls’ enrollment is 81.32% as against 78% for boys
- At higher secondary level, girls’ enrollment is 59.7% as compared to 57.54% for boys.
To improve health of children in the age of 0 to 6 years of age, adolescent girls and lactating women, Poshan Abhiyan was introduced. More than 6 lakhs Anganwadi workers are equipped with smart phones to upload the status of nutrition of more than 10 crore house hold.
Task Force appointed
The age of marriage for girls was increased from 15 years to 18 years in 1978. This was done by amending the Sharada act (The Child Marriage Restraint Act), 1929. As India progresses further, wider opportunities open up. Also, there is lowering of maternal mortality rates and improvement of nutritional levels. In order to include women in every aspect of such developments, a task force is to be appointed.
The Budget 2020-21 allocated 35,600 crores of rupees for the nutrition related programmes. It also allocates 28,600 crores for programmes of women development.
The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has identified suitable technologies for sewerage cleaning. The Ministry is currently working with the urban local bodies for adoption of these technologies. The budget allocates funds to achieve this and also to implement legislative changes. The budget will also allocate funds to support wider acceptance of such technologies.
Along with manual scavengers, the other section of the society including scheduled class and OBCs a budget of 85,000 crores has been allocated. For the upliftment of Scheduled Tribes, a budget of 53,700 crores has been allocated. For Senior citizens and Divyangs 9,500 crores has been allocated.
Culture and Tourism
Indian Institute of Heritage and Culture to be established
Under the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the GoI proposes to establish an Indian Institute of Heritage and Culture. It shall have the status of a Deemed University to start with. It will include course of museology, archaeology and also includes scientific curriculum of those fields.
5 Archaeological sites to be developed
The GoI has allocated funds to develop 5 archaeological sites with museums. They are Rakhigarhi in Haryana, Dholavira in Gujarat, Hastinapur in Uttar Pradesh, Sivasagar in Assam and Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu.
Four more museums are to be renovated. At the historic Old Mint building in Kolkata, a museum on numismatics and trade is to be located.
A tribal Museum at Ranchi, Jharkhand is to be set up.
A Maritime museum to be set up in Lothal, a maritime site of Harappan age. This is to be set up by the Ministry of Shipping.
India’s stand in tourism
India has move up to rank 65 in 2014 to rank 34 in 2019 in the travel and tourism competitive index. The index is prepared by the World Economic Forum. The Foreign Exchange grew 7.4% (between January and November, 2019)
For Culture the budget allocated 3,150 crores. For Tourism the GoI allocated 2,500 crores.
ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Closure of old thermal power stations
GoI launched the Global Coalition for Disaster-Resilient Infrastructure in 2015. It will help in addressing the Sustainable Development Goals.
India submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution under Paris Agreement on Climate Change signed in 2015. The implementation begins January 1, 2021. In order to succeed the contributions, GoI has decided to close old thermal power stations. The land vacated are to be put to alternative uses.
Clean air in cities
The cities are to be encouraged to take actions against pollution to provide clean air for the citizens. The budget allocated separate funds to achieve this. However, only cities with population above 1 million are included under this. Incentives will be provided to such cities that are coming forward to implement such measures. The measures will be released by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
GoI allocated 4,400 crores for environment and climate change.