Assam Current Affairs - 2019
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Bihar Diwas was celebrated on March 22nd across the state to commemorate the day when Bihar was carved out of the Bengal Presidency in the year 1912. March 22nd 2019 was the 107th foundation day of the state.
Bihar and Bengal Presidency
The British East India Company emerged victorious in the Battle of Buxar fought against the combined army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal King Shah Alam II.
After the Battle, Mughals, as well as the Nawabs of Bengal, lost the effective control over the territories which constituted the province of Bengal, which currently comprises Bangladesh, and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha. The British East India Company was accorded the diwani rights to administer the collection and management of revenues of the province of Bengal.
In 1911 when the capital of then British India was shifted to Delhi, the Bengal Presidency was split into four sabhas Bengal, Orissa, Bihar and Assam.
The government of Bihar which was looking for a commemorative event in Bihar’s history that could become the state’s official day of celebration, chose March 22nd the day Bihar was carved out of Bengal Presidency as Bihar Diwas. Bihar Diwas was first celebrated on a large-scale in 2010. Bihar Diwas was the brainchild of then chief minister Nitish Kumar.
Department of Science and Technology has decided to commission a study to assess the climate risks faced by States in India. This decision comes in the backdrop of completion of vulnerability study across 12 Himalayan States.
Vulnerability Study by the Himalayan States
The study was undertaken in the 12 Himalayan states viz. Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir. The vulnerability was measured on a scale 0-1 with 1 indicating the highest possible level of vulnerability. The study indicates that:
- Assam and Mizoram with a vulnerability score of 0.72 and 0.71 topped the vulnerability index.
- Sikkim with the score of 0.42 was relatively less vulnerable.
- The scores of other states are Jammu & Kashmir (0.62), Manipur (0.59), Meghalaya and West Bengal (both 0.58), Nagaland (0.57), Himachal Pradesh and Tripura (0.51 both), Arunachal Pradesh (0.47) and Uttarakhand (0.45).
- Assam is highly vulnerable to climate change because of factors like low per capita income, deforestation, a large number of marginal farmers, least area under irrigation, lack of alternative sources of income and high rates of poverty.
- The report finds that low per capita income, low open forest area per 1,000 households and lack of irrigation coverage as the most important drivers of vulnerability in Himalayan states.
- Other indicators include the percentage of area under slope, yield variability of food grains, forest cover, irrigation cover and access to healthcare.
- In Arunachal Pradesh, the key factors are low female literacy and a high percentage of population above BPL.
- In Nagaland, the key issues are the loss of forest cover, steep slope and high yield variability.
The vulnerability score was calculated based on eight parameters such as percentage of area in districts under forests, yield variability of food grain, population density, female literacy rate, infant mortality rate, percentage of population below poverty line (BPL), average man-days under MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), and the area under slope > 30%.
Tags: Arunachal Pradesh • Assam • Climate Vulnerability Index • Department of Science and Technology • Himachal Pradesh • Himalayan States • Jammu and Kashmir • Manipur • Meghalaya • MGNREGA • Mizoram • Nagaland • Sikkim • Tripura • Uttarakhand • West Bengal