Austria Current Affairs
Austrian capital Vienna was ranked as world’s most liveable city among 140 major cities in 2018 Global Liveability Index released by Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). It is first time that European city has topped rankings of EIU annual survey.
Global Liveability Index
Global Liveability Index released by EIU compares world cities with each other in terms of security, affordability, education, healthcare, its urban lifestyle and infrastructure. It scores 140 major cities of the world on scale ranging from 0 (least liveable city) to 100 (most liveable city) based on these above parameters.
Key Highlights of 2018 Global Liveability Index
10 most liveable cities’ list includes Vienna, Austria (rank: 1st, with total score of 99.1), Melbourne, Australia (2nd, 98.4); Osaka, Japan (3rd, 97.7); Calgary, Canada (4th, 97.5); Sydney, Australia (5th, 97.4); Vancouver, Canada (6th, 97.3); Toronto, Canada (7th, 97.2); Tokyo, Japan (8th, 97.2); Copenhagen, Denmark (9th, 96.8); and Adelaide, Australia (96.6).
Three Canadian cities made it into top 10 viz. Vancouver, Toronto and Calgary. No Indian cities were ranked in the top ten or bottom ten of this edition of index. New Delhi had figured at 112th and Mumbai 117th position in list. South Asian cities were also ranked low in
The 10 least liveable cities are Dakar, Senegal (131st); Algiers, Algeria (132nd); Douala, Cameroon (133rd); Tripoli, Libya (134th); Harare, Zimbabwe (135th); Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (136th); Karachi, Pakistan (137th); Lagos, Nigeria (138th); Dhaka, Bangladesh (139th) and Damascus, Syria (140th).
Physicists from Austria have created new form of Hydrogen i.e. negatively charged hydrogen clusters. It is a previously unseen form of hydrogen.
For the past forty years, existence of hydrogen in ion clusters was known and is positively-charged clusters have already exists.
How negatively charged Hydrogen Clusters were created?
- Researchers first injected cold liquid helium droplets with hydrogen molecules to form clusters with a neutral charge. Then they exposed these hydrogen-infused droplets to an electron beam.
- This caused some hydrogen molecules to ionize and be flung out into the surrounding vacuum as negatively charged hydrogen ions.
- Soon, the nearby hydrogen molecules started clustering around the negatively charged ions to create negatively charged hydrogen clusters that could boast a few, or many molecules each.
- The newly created negatively charged hydrogen clusters existed only for microseconds (1 microsecond = 0.000001 seconds). But it was enough time for researchers to determine their geometric structures.
- Significance of Research: It will help researchers to easily identify the clusters in nature.