Bangladesh Current Affairs
Bangladesh was as Vice Chairman of Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) for the period of 2019-21 and eventually as IORA Chairman for 2021-23 at 18th IORA Council of Ministers’ Meeting held in Durban, South Africa. The Current Chair is South Africa and Vice Chair is UAE.
As per practice, IORA is led by Chair and Vice Chair on behalf of member States. The stint of posts is two years. When incumbent Vice Chair UAE will take post of Chair in 2019, Bangladesh will assume Vice Chairmanship. After completion of 2 years of vice chairmanship, Bangladesh will become Chairman of IORA for first time in October 2021. During 18th IORA Council of Ministers’ Meeting Maldives was accepted as 22nd Member of IORA .Two outcome documents were adopted namely ‘Declaration on commemoration of Nelson Mandela’ and eThekwini Communique.
Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)
IORA is international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering Indian Ocean, established in 1997 to promote cooperation in IOR. It is regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Academia and Business for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them.
It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region. IORA comprises 22 member states (including India) and 7 dialogue partners. Besides, Indian Ocean Research Group and Indian Ocean Tourism Organisation have observer status.
India was elected to United Nations’ Human Rights Council’, the main body of UN charged with promoting and monitoring human rights for period of three years beginning January 1, 2019. In this secret ballot election held in 193-member UN General Assembly (UNGA) India secured 188 votes in Asia-Pacific category, the highest number of votes among all candidates. Total 18 new members in the five regional categories were elected by absolute majority (i.e. minimum of 97 votes are required to get elected through secret ballot). From Asia-Pacific region category, Fiji with 187 and Bangladesh 178 votes were also elected along with India. This was fifth time India has been elected to UNHRC, previously was elected 2006-2009, 2011-2014 and 2014-2017.
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)
UNHRC is an inter-governmental body within United Nations system. It is responsible for strengthening promotion and protection of human rights around globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. It was created by UNGA on 15 March 2006 by adopting resolution 60/251 to promote human rights globally. It had replaced former UN Commission on Human Rights. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
Members: UNHRC is made up of 47 UN member states which are elected by UN General Assembly (UNGA) with specific number of seats allocated for each five region of the globe viz. African States (13 seats), Asia-Pacific States (13 seats), Eastern European States (6 seats), Latin American and Caribbean States (8 seats) and Western European and other States( 7 seats). Members serve for three-year terms and can serve only two terms in a row.
Functions: Members of the council work to engage countries on improving human rights. They make decisions ranging from exposing violations to recommending that UN Security Council make referral to International Criminal Court (ICC). UNHRC does not have authority to take action but can exert significant pressure on violating country. It can also set up special rapporteurs with mandate to investigate and report human-rights violations and abuses.
Note: United States under President Donald Trump Administration had withdrawn from UNHRC earlier this year after it questioned legitimacy of the council because of presence of several dictatorial regimes violating human rights on it.