Biennial Update Report Current Affairs - 2019
Category Wise PDF Compilations available at This Link
India is mandated to submit a biennial update report containing updates of national greenhouse gas inventories and information on mitigation actions, needs and support received as a party to UNFCC.
The Union Cabinet chaired by PM Modi has approved the submission of second Biennial Update Report (BUR) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), giving India’s national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of 2014.
India’s greenhouse gas emissions in 2014
The Biennial Update Report contains five major components National Circumstances, National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Mitigation Actions; Finance, Technology and Capacity Building Needs and Support Received and Domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) arrangements. The BUR reports following figures about India’s greenhouse gas emissions:
- In India, a total of 26,07,488 gigagram (Gg) CC-2 equivalent or around 2.607 billion tonnes of CC-2 equivalent of GHGs were emitted from all activities, excluding ‘land use, land use change and forestry’ (LULUCF) in 2014.
- Net national GHG emissions after including LULUCF were 23,06,295 Gg CO2 equivalent or around 2.306 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
- Energy sector accounted for 73 per cent, industrial processes and product use (IPPU) 8 per cent, agriculture 16 per cent and waste sector 3 per cent of emissions.
- India is on course for achieving the target for emission intensity of the economy and share of non-fossil fuel-based power capacity.
India’s commitments under the Paris Agreement
India advocating the principle of common burden differential responsibility according to the respective capability has made three important commitments under the INDC. They are:
- Reducing greenhouse gas emission intensity of India’s GDP by 33-35 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030.
- 40 per cent of India’s power capacity would be based on non-fossil fuel sources.
- Creating an additional ‘carbon sink’ of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of Co2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
India’s commitments under the INDC’s are seen as most ambitious ones under the current circumstances.
India has submitted its first Biennial Update Report (BUR) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) towards fulfillment of the reporting obligation.
The BUR has been submitted as per the provisions of the UNFCCC Convention which is obligatory on countries to periodically provide national information.
Key highlights of BUR
- BUR has been prepared by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (UNFCC) under its NATCOM project funded by Global Environment Facility (GEF).
- Contains national inventory of Green House Gases (GHG) for 2010 and has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- 6 GHGs in Inventory: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
- Five categories: It covers agriculture, waste and Land-use, Land-use, Change and Forestry (LULUCF), energy, industrial processes and product use (IPPU),.
- India’s emissions: India has emitted around 2,137 million tonnes (mt) of CO2 equivalent GHGs in 2010.
- About 12% of emissions were offset by carbon sink action of croplands and forests. Thus, total of 1,884.31 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent GHGs were emitted.
- In 2010, India’s per capita GHG emission was less than one- third of the world’s per capita emissions. It is far below many developed and developing countries.
- Category wise Emissions: Energy sector was the prime contributor to emissions with 71%. While, agriculture contributed 18 % and IPPU 8% to the national GHG inventory.
- In the conference of Parties (COP)-16 of UNFCCC held in Cancun (Mexico) in 2010 it was decided that the developing countries will submit updates in the form of BUR.
- The scope of a BUR is to provide an update to the latest National Communication submitted by the country to the UNFCCC.
- Accordingly, India’s first BUR is an update to the Second National Communication which was submitted in 2012. India had submitted its first national communication in 2004.