Cancer Current Affairs - 2019
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Prime Minister, Narendra Modi inaugurated National Cancer Institute (NIC) at Badhsa in Jhajjar district of Haryana.
Prime Minister also inaugurated an ESIC Medical College and Hospital in Faridabad. It is the first Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Medical College and hospital in North India. It has 510 beds and includes the facilities of surgical oncology, radiation oncology, medical oncology, anaesthesia, palliative care, and nuclear medicine.
There are 6 existing ESIC medical colleges at Kolkata, Faridabad, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengaluru, and Gulbarga.
About Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC)
- It was established under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948(ESI Act) by the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India.
- It is an autonomous organization and it manages the funds of all employees earning ₹21,000 or less per month.
- Employees’ State Insurance includes self-financing social security and health insurance scheme for Indian workers.
- ESIC is operating many medical, dental, nursing and paramedical schools in India.
What is the purpose of ESIC Hospital?
Workers are generally exposed to sickness related to their occupation; they may even suffer from temporary or permanent disablement etc, which results in loss of their wages. Institutions like this negate the resulting physical or financial distress in such contingencies and uphold human dignity in times of crises.
Cancer Incidence in Haryana
According to 2018 survey, 38% of deaths due to cancer occur in Haryana. Some of the identified reasons are:
- Rapid industrialization
- Industries are disposing waste directly into the river without undergoing any sewage treatment process. This gives rise to air and water-borne diseases among which skin infection and cancer are most common.
- Improper sanitation
- Excessive use of fertilizers
The contamination due to the reasons listed above pollutes water by causing eutrophication (the phenomenon of a body of water becoming overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of plants and algae) and the consumption of this polluted water is resulting in cancer.
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was jointly awarded to two immunologists James P. Allison (US) and Tasuku Honjo (Japan) for their discovery of Immune checkpoint therapy i.e. cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. It was announced by Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.
Significance of their discovery
Both immunologists had figured out entirely new principle for cancer therapy by stimulating the ability of immune system to attack tumour or cance cells more quickly, unlike traditional forms of cancer treatment that directly target cancer cells. Their discovery has led to treatments targeting proteins made by some immune system cells that act as brake on body’s natural defences killing cancer cells. This therapy is landmark in fight against cancer and has revolutionised cancer treatment. It also has fundamentally changed way to manage cancer.
About Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel award for physiology or medicine is given to persons whose discoveries have significantly enhanced understanding of life or practice of medicine. The winners are chosen by Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute. The prestigious award carries prize money of 8 million Swedish kroner (US $1.1 million). Medicine is first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite in 1895 in his will. German physiologist Emil von Behring was first recipient of this award in 1901 for his work on serum therapy and development of vaccine against diphtheria. Gerty Cori was first woman to receive Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for her role in elucidating metabolism of glucose.