Capital Current Affairs - 2020

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Facts Box: “Three Capital Bill” of Andhra Pradesh

The Andhra Pradesh Government has passed the “Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Equal Development of All Regions Bill”, 2020. The bill paves way for three capitals of the state.

Highlights

The three capitals are Amaravati-legislative capital, Vishakhapatnam-the executive capital and Kurnool-judicial capital. The three-capital system is being adopted by the government of Andhra Pradesh in order to ensure equal development throughout the state. This also aids in decentralization of government. The above cities were selected as capitals for their strategic location to aid decentralization.

Committees

The cities were recommended by the committees namely B N Sri Krishna Committee, G N Rao Committee and K Sivaramakrishnan Committee.

Indian States

There are other states in India with two capitals as well. It includes Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. The capitals of Maharashtra are Mumbai and Nagpur. The state holds winter session of the state in Nagpur. Similarly, the capitals of Himachal Pradesh are Shimla and Dharamshala (Winter). The capital of Jammu and Kashmir were Srinagar and Jammu (winter).

Other Countries

The other countries that have multiple capitals include Sri Lanka and Malaysia. In Sri Lanka, Jayawardenepura Kotte is the seat of national legislature and is the official capital and Colombo is the seat of judicial bodies and national executives.

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Kalimantan: Indonesia to move capital from Jakarta to Borneo Island

Government of Indonesia has announced to move its current capital from Jakarta (on the island of Java) to the sparsely populated East Kalimantan (on Borneo island). Indonesia’s President Joko Widodo has announced that his government plans to build smart, green capital city on Borneo island. However, t some environmentalist groups fear $33billion relocation plan of capital city may put further pressure on Borneo island’s rainforest dwelling species like the orangutan.

Reasons for shifting of capital city

Indonesia’s current capital, Jakarta, is home to more than 10 million people. It climate-threatened megacity as it has some of the world’s worst air pollution and traffic congestion. Poor urban planning has left 40% of the city below sea level.

The shifting of capital city is part of a broader strategy to decentralise Indonesia’s economic growth as Jakarta is home to 60% of the country’s population and accounts for over half of its economic activity.

Kalimantan is almost four times bigger that Jakarta, but accounts for less than a tenth of the gross domestic production (GDP). It is also much more central in Indonesia’s archipelago of 17,000 islands.

Borneo Island

It is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. It is home to some of the world’s greatest tropical rainforests. It is politically divided among three countries: Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei (see map below). Kalimantan is Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo and it comprises 73% of island’s geographic area.

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