Census Current Affairs

42 Indian languages heading towards extinction

42 languages or dialects in India are considered to be endangered and are believed to be heading towards extinction as only few thousand people speak them. According to report of Census Directorate, there are 22 scheduled languages and 100 non-scheduled languages in country, which are spoken by large number of people — one lakh or more.

There 42 languages are spoken by fewer than 10,000 people.  A list prepared by UNESCO also has mentioned them as critically endangered languages. The Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore is working for protection and preservation of these languages under central scheme Protection and Preservation of Endangered Languages of India

42 endangered languages or dialects include

States Endangered languages
Andaman and Nicobar Islands (11) Great Andamanese, Jarawa, Lamongse, Luro, Muot, Onge, Pu, Sanenyo, Sentilese, Shompen and Takahanyilang.
Manipur (7) Aimol, Aka, Koiren, Lamgang, Langrong, Purum and Tarao.
Himachal Pradesh (4) Baghati, Handuri, Pangvali and Sirmaudi.
Odisha (3) Manda, Parji and Pengo.
Karnataka (2) Koraga and Kuruba.
Andhra Pradesh (2) Gadaba and Naiki.
Tamil Nadu (2) Kota and Toda.
Arunachal Pradesh (2) Mra and Na.
Assam (2) Tai Nora and Tai Rong.
Uttarakhand (1) Bangani.
Jharkhand (1) Birhor.
Maharashtra (1) Nihali.
Meghalaya (1) Ruga.
West Bengal (1) Toto.

Background

According UNESCO, promoting idea of language is an inalienable cultural right. It has already built it into charter of sustainable development goals (SGDs). India is a formal signatory to charter.  It is the state’s obligation to secure and protect the community’s right to its language.

From 1971 onwards, the Census is disclosing names only of those languages which have more than 10,000 speakers. It has resulted decline in list of languages to 108 languages in 1971 Census, as against the 1,652 a decade ago. The 2001 language data from Census have mixed list of 22 scheduled languages and hundred other languages. The 2011 Census data have been not disclosed yet.

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More differently abled attend schools than before: 2011 Census

According to recently released new 2011 census data, nearly two-thirds of the disabled population in the age-group of 5-19 in 2011 were attending educational institutions.

It was mentioned in the table C-22 of census which gives distribution of the disabled population in the age-group 5-19 by their attendance status in educational institution, type of disability, sex, age and residence.

Highlights of the table C-22 of census

  • As many as 40.2 lakh (61.2%) out of the total of 65.7 lakh disabled population in the specified age group were attending educational institutions in 2011.
  • Besides, 8.0 lakh (12.1%) had attended educational institutions earlier and 17.5 lakh (26.7%) never had attended any educational institutions.
  • The census shows improvement of 11% points from 2001 when 33 lakh (50%) of the 65.3 lakh differently abled persons had attended educational institutions.
  • The enrolment figure is 10% points lower than that of the total population — 71% attending educational institutions.
  • 27% of the disabled people in the age group of 5-19 have never attended any educational institute.
  • Data show those who reported to have ‘any other disability’ has the highest percentage (71.2%) of the people attending any educational institution.
  • This was followed by those having visual disability (68%) and hearing difficulty (67%), Movement (59.6%), Speech (58.9%), Mental retardation (47.2%), Multiple disability (37.2%) and Mental illness (34.1%).

disability-enrolment

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