CERN Current Affairs

Scientists perform world’s first 3D, colour X-ray on human body

Scientists from New Zealand have performed world’s first-ever 3-D, colour X-ray on human. It has potential to improve the field of medical diagnostics. The new device is based on the traditional black-and-white X-ray but incorporates particle-tracking technology called Medipix developed by European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

Key Facts

The Medipix technology developed by CERN works like camera detecting and counting individual sub-atomic particles as they collide with pixels while its shutter is open. This allows for high-resolution, high-contrast pictures. Its small pixels and accurate energy resolution makes this new imaging tool able to get images that no other imaging tool can achieve. The technology is being commercialised by New Zealand company MARS Bioimaging, linked to the universities of Canterbury and Otago which helped develop it.

Significance: This colour X-ray imaging technique can produce clearer and more accurate pictures and help doctors give their patients more accurate diagnoses. The images very clearly show difference between bone, muscle and cartilage and also the position and size of cancerous tumours.

Month: Categories: Science and Technology Current Affairs - 2018

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Scientists discover five new sub-atomic particles at CERN

Scientists using Large Hadron Collider accelerator (LHC) at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research) have discovered a new system of five particles all in a single analysis.

This discovery is unique as observing five new states all at once is very rare. According to the standard convention, these particle states were named Oc(3000)0, Oc(3050)0, Oc(3066)0, Oc(3090)0 b Oc(3119)0.

The numbers indicate their masses in megaelectronvolts (MeV), measured by LHCb experiment, one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at LHC, world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator.

Key Facts
  • The new particles were found to be in excited states (a particle state that has a higher energy than the ground state or absolute minimum configuration) of a particle called Omega-c-zero.
  • Omega-c-zero is a baryon. It is a particle with three quarks, containing two strange and one charm quark. It decays via the strong force into another baryon, called Xi-c-plus (containing a “charm”, a “strange” and an “up” quark) and a kaon K-. Xi-c-plusparticle further decays in turn into a proton p, a kaon K- and a pion p+.
  • LHCb collaboration by analysing trajectories and energy left in the detector by all the particles in this final configuration were able to trace back the initial event he decay of the Omega-c-zeroand its excited states.
  • Now quantum numbers of these new particles, characteristic numbers used to identify the properties of a specific particle and their theoretical significance will be determined.
  • Significance of the Discovery: It will contribute to understanding how the three constituent quarks are bound inside a baryon.
  • It will also help to probe the correlation between quarks, which plays a key role in describing multi-quark states, such as tetraquarks and pentaquarks.

About Baryon

Baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark). Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family of particles, which are the quark-based particles. The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe.

Month: Categories: Science and Technology Current Affairs - 2018

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