Chile Current Affairs - 2020

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India attended the Madrid Climate Conference

The Minister of Environment Shri Prakash Javadekar represented India at the Madrid Climate Conference. The United Nations Climate Change Conference is being held in Madrid between 2nd December, 2019 and 13th December 2019.

The COP25 (25th Conference of Parties) was to be held in Chile. However, Chile government cancelled COP25 due to the protests that are plaguing the country. Following its cancellation, Spain offered to organize the event.

Highlights

The Conference insisted the member countries to enhance their NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) in the coming 12 months till COP26. A yearbook was launched that called on the governments to strengthen the UNFCCC agenda post 2020. It also insisted to create actions for a climate resilient world between 2020 and 2050.

Report on Oceans

The conference also released report on oceans titled “Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate” (SPROCC). According to the report, global mean sea level increased from 1.4 mm (1901-1990) to 3.6 mm (2006-2015). Also, the report says that the ocean warming has increased since 1993. Between 1993 and 2017, 700 to 2000 metres of ocean layers have warmed up.

Nairobi Work Programme

The Nairobi Work Programme was reviewed and its progress were discussed at the conference. The Programme was established in 2005 at COP11. It aims at impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change.

The objective of the programme is to assist least developed countries to understand and assess impacts of climate change.

The Global Climate Risk Index 2020 was published at the conference

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Madrid to host COP 25

The Spanish capital city of Madrid will be hosting the world’s annual climate conference, called COP-25 (Conference of the Parties) from 2 to 13 December 2019. This decision was taken following Chile’s stepping down as host for the COP-25 event due to the ongoing street protests in South American country.

Key Highlights

The decision came just a day after the acting Spanish government issued a communique that indicated Spain would be willing to host the conference.  Later, the hosting country was confirmed by Patricia Espinosa, the executive secretary for UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The COP25 was earlier scheduled to take place in Santiago for two weeks from 3 December 2019.

What is Conference of the Parties (COP)?

The COP is the supreme decision-making body of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). All States that are Parties to Convention are represented at COP which meets every year, unless the Parties decide otherwise. The COP meets in Bonn (the seat of UNFCCC secretariat), unless a Party offers to host its session. The first COP meeting was held on March 1995 in Berlin, Germany.

At the COP the Parties review the implementation of Convention and any other legal instruments that COP adopts and take decisions necessary for promoting effective implementation of Convention, which includes institutional as well as administrative arrangements.

COP Presidency rotates among 5 recognized UN regions, namely, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Western Europe and Others. There is also a tendency that the COP venue also shifts among these groups.

COP Conference: The annual summit is a key event which allows representatives from about 200 countries to monitor as well as discuss current situation of world’s warming climate.

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