Civil War Current Affairs - 2020

UNSC adopts Resolution 2428 to impose arms embargo on South Sudan

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has adopted Resolution 2428 (2018) to impose an arms embargo on South Sudan, almost five years after ruinous civil war was started in infant country. The resolution was drafted by United States and won minimum nine votes needed in favor to none against with 6 abstentions.

Yes votes: United Kingdom, United States, Sweden, Poland, Ivory Coast, France, Kuwait, Netherlands and Peru. Abstentions from voting: Bolivia, China, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Russia

Resolution 2428 (2018)

It calls upon all UN member states to prevent supply, sale or transfer to South Sudan — from or through their territories till 31 May 2019. The embargo is related to arms and related material and withholds training, technical and financial assistance related to military activities or materials. In addition, it lays out several exemptions to the country’s arms embargo including for material and activities related to humanitarian activities and lists details related to the inspection of shipments and cargo bound for South Sudan.


The civil war in South Sudan started in 2013, two years after it gained independence from Sudan, when President Salva Kiir accused his then-deputy Riek Machar of plotting coup against him. Over the years, long-standing intense rivalry between Kiir and Machar intensified fighting with more than dozen warring factions. The civil war has killed tens of thousands of people and forced millions to flee their homes, triggering humanitarian crisis. The United Nations has peacekeepers in the country as part of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). In June 2018, President Kiir and his rival Riek Machar had agreed to permanent ceasefire, raising hopes of peace deal to end their country’s devastating civil war. But several ceasefires had previously been violated by the warring parties.

Colombia passes FARC amnesty law

Colombia’s Congress passed a law granting amnesty to Marxist FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) rebels as part of historic peace deal reached between rebels and Government.

The Senate passed the bill 69-0 votes after the House of Representatives approved it by 121-0 votes. This is another step to formally end to 52 years of Columbian civil war (Latin America’s longest conflict).

The law grants special legal treatment, amnesty and pardons to members of the FARC accused of political and related crimes. It does not apply to FARC rebels accused of offenses such as war crimes, rape, torture and extrajudicial killings.


The amnesty bill was part of a renegotiated peace pact signed between Government and rebels on November 24, 2016 to end the conflict after nearly four years of negotiations. They had renegotiated the peace deal after voters rejected an earlier peace deal (signed in September 2016) by a narrow margin in the referendum held in October 2016. The Colombian Government had decided to ratify the amnesty bill in Congress rather than risk a second referendum.

About Colombian Civil War

Colombia civil war is one of the longest civil wars in modern times and was the sole remaining armed conflict in the South (Latin) America. The five decade long civil war has killed more than 2,60,000 people and internally displaced close to seven million people. It was started in the 1960s as a rural uprising for land rights by FARC as communist-inspired guerrilla movement inspired by Cuban Revolution. The main aim of FARC was to reduce the gulf dividing rich and poor and land reform for equality in the Andean country. Over the decades, the conflict has drawn in various leftist rebel groups, drug gangs and right-wing paramilitaries. However in recent times, the FARC had shifted from their original ideology and were active in illegal drug trade, kidnapping and extortion activities.