COP25 Current Affairs - 2020

India marks the beginning of “Super Year of Biodiversity” with CMS COP 13

The year 2020 has been nick named as “Super Year” by global advocacy groups including the United Nations. This has been done to highlight 21 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and their targets.

India marks the “Super Year of Biodiversity” with the Conservation of Migratory Species Conference of Parties 13. The year includes UN summit in September 2020 and will end in UN Biodiversity Conference in the end of 2020.

Super Year

In Super Year, the SDGs of Climate, Ocean, Gender, life below water and land are to be implemented. Several major initiatives to achieve these SDGs were taken by the United Nations. This year all such initiatives are to be given special focus. They are as follows

Gender Equality

  • The Beijing Programme of Action marks 25th anniversary in 2020. It was framed in 1995 at the fourth United Nation World Conference on Women.
  • The 64th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women is to be held in March 2020.

Climate Action

  • The COP 26 is to be held in Glasgow in 2020 to address the gaps that were undermined at COP 25 and also harmed the reputation of COP 25.
  • The first Global Transport on Sustainable Transport is to be held in May 2020

Life Below Water

  • The Strategic Plan for Bio Diversity 2011-20 comes to an end in 2020. It was adopted in 2010 at the convention on Biological Diversity. In 2019, the Inter-governmental Science Policy platform published the Global Assessment of State of Biodiversity and Ecosystem services. It listed 20 Biodiversity Targets. They are now to be taken for implementation in 2020 as the plan end in 2020.
  • The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) is to hold World Conservation Congress in Marseille, France in June 2020. It is being organized once on 4 years.

2020-A Decade of Closure (Ocean)

  • Apart from a new beginning, the 2020 will also close bio-diversity related agendas. It includes the Decade for Deserts which marked the fight against desertification. This was marked by the UN Convention to Combat Desertification.
  • The Second UN Ocean Conference is to be held in 2020. The first was held in 2017 in New York. Since its first conference the community has been working on ocean acidification.

UN Climate Summit concludes

The longest climate talks in the history of United Nations that was held in Madrid, Spain, ended on December 15, 2019. The climate summit ended without crucial agreement on carbon market rules of the Paris Agreement.

Highlights

The key issues that was aimed to get resolved at the summit was the regulation of carbon market. Carbon market puts prices on carbon dioxide emission. However, no conclusion was reached and the issue is to be taken at the next summit to be held at Glasgow in 2020. The summit failed to reach an agreement on the implementation of Article 6 of Paris Agreement.

The United Nations Environment Programme released its Emission Gap Report at the summit. Also, the report of Global Carbon Project was tabled at the summit.

The Presidency of the summit, Chile (though summit was held at Madrid, Spain), launched the Climate Ambition Alliance.

Article 6 of Paris Agreement

The article 6 aims at promoting approaches to implement the NDC (Nationally Determined Contributions) through voluntary international cooperation. It also establishes a trading system where in the countries with low emission are allowed to sell their exceeding allowance to countries with larger emissions.

Issue

Last year at the COP24, countries US, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Russia refused to welcome the IPCC 1.5C report. This year majority of the members are not willing to reduce their emissions at the pace suggested by the conference. According to World Resources Institute NDC tracker, only 80 countries have so far submitted proposals to enhance their NDCs. These countries are primarily small and developing. They represent only 10.5% of the world population.