CSIR Current Affairs - 2019

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Ministry of S&T launches Eco friendly crackers developed by CSIR

On 6th October, 2019, Ministry of Science and Technology launched new set of crackers called Eco – friendly crackers. These crackers help to reduce particulate emissions by 30% by producing same level of light and sound.

The crackers were developed by CSIR – Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. They were developed in the wake of SC directions on use and restrictions of fireworks

Implementation

The Ministry has signed contracts with around 230 firework manufacturers to use the formulations developed by CSIR. The crackers are expected to reach markets for this Diwali.

Significance

The regular crackers release Barium Nitrate the main pollutant. It is now replaced with Potassium Nitrate. Also, crackers pollute the environment by leaving dangerous toxins, metal particles, smoke and harmful chemicals.

SC on firecrackers

In 2018, SC directed the CPCB – Central Pollution Control Board to monitor the levels of metals in the atmosphere before and after Diwali. Also, the court restricted the time of bursting crackers between 8 pm and 10 pm.

SC also encouraged use of green crackers and improved crackers. Improved crackers are those which use ash as filler and reduces the particulate emission by 15 to 20%. It also uses charcoal within the limit prescribed by Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization. Green Crackers are those that reduces emission of Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide and reduces the overall harmful particualte emissions by 30 to 35%.

First Indigenous High-Temperature Fuel Cell System launched

The President of India Ram Nath Kovind launched the first Indigenous High-Temperature Fuel Cell System developed by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) under ‘New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)’. The launched was made at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi on the occasion of 78th Foundation Day CSIR.

About High-Temperature Fuel Cell System

The system has been developed under India’s flagship program ‘New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)’.

It has been developed by CSIR in partnership with Indian industries. This makes it a unique example of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) among CSIR’s three Laboratories- (CSIR-NCL, Pune; CSIR-NPL, New Delhi; CSIR-CECRI, Karaikudi (Chennai Center)) and two Indian industries namely, M/s Thermax Limited (Pune) and M/s Reliance Industries Limited (Mumbai).

Function:

The 5.0 kW fuel cell system generates power in a green manner. It uses methanol or bio-methane, with heat and water as bi-products for further use. This further amounts to more than 70% efficiency, which otherwise may not be possible by other energy sources.

Fuel Cells developed are based on High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) Technology.

Application:

In the field of clean energy, Fuel Cell distributed power generation systems are emerging as one of the most promising alternative to grid power.

This development is most suitable for distributed stationary power applications and where highly reliable power is essential with simultaneous requirement for air-conditioning such as- for small offices, data centers, commercial units, etc.

It will also meet the requirement of efficient, clean and reliable backup power generator for telecom towers, remote locations as well as strategic applications.

Fuel Cells fit well in India’s mission of replacing diesel with green and alternate fuels, thus this development would replace Diesel Generating (DG) sets and will help in reducing India’s dependence on crude oil.