DNA Current Affairs - 2019
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The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has undertaken an indigenous genetic mapping effort to educate a generation of students on the “usefulness” of genomics.
About the Project
- Under the Project, nearly 1,000 rural youth from the length and breadth of India will have their genomes sequenced by the CSIR.
- The project is an adjunct to a much larger government-led programme which is still in the works to sequence at least 10,000 Indian genomes.
- Those recruited as part of genome-sample collections are representative of the country’s population diversity and the bulk of them will be college students, both men and women, and pursuing degrees in the life sciences or biology.
- Genomes will be sequenced based on a blood sample.
- Every participant would be given a report and would be informed whether they carry gene variants that make them less responsive to certain classes of medicines.
Genome refers to an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information required to build and maintain that organism. Genome sequencing refers to figuring out the order of the DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome.
A team of doctors from Greece and Spain have reported the birth of a baby using DNA from three people. The baby boy has inherited the genetic material from two women and a man.
How did the new IVF method work?
Doctors used an egg from the infertile mother, the father’s sperm and another woman’s egg to conceive the baby boy. The doctors transferred genetic material with chromosomes from the mother to the egg of a donor whose own genetic material had been removed in a process.
A similar DNA switching technique was adopted in Mexico in 2016 to avoid transmission of a mother’s hereditary illness to her child. But this case from Greece is unique owing to the fact that for the first time an IVF (in vitro fertilization) technique using DNA from three people has been deployed to allow a mother otherwise unable to conceive to have a child.
In-vitro Fertilization is an artificial reproduction technique wherein the process of fertilization happens by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory set-up. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.