Economic Survey 2016-17 Current Affairs
The Economic Survey 2016-17 tabled in Parliament has advocated for the concept of Universal Basic Income (UBI) as an alternative to the various social welfare schemes in an effort to reduce poverty.
It suggests that a more efficient way to help the poor will be to provide them resources directly, through a UBI. It will be an efficient substitute for a plethora of existing welfare schemes and subsidies.
What is Universal Basic Income (UBI)?
A basic income is a form of social security in which all citizens of a country regularly receive an unconditional sum of money, either from a government in addition to any income received from elsewhere. It is based on the principles of universality and unconditionality. However, it forfeits other government aided benefits. Recently, government of Finland announced the introduction of a trial for UBI involving 2,000 unemployed people. In June 2016, Swiss voters in referendum had overwhelmingly rejected proposal to introduce basic income for all.
Survey’s justification for introduction of UBI
- Promoting social justice, reducing poverty, unconditional cash transfer that lets the beneficiary decide how she uses the money, employment generation by promoting labour flexibility.
- It will bring in administrative efficiency as a direct cash transfer through JAM (Jan Dhan-Aadhar-Mobile) platform.
- It will be more efficient as compared to the “existing welfare schemes which are riddled with misallocation, leakages and exclusion of the poor.
- It can help to achieve considerable gains in terms of bureaucratic costs and time by replacing many of these with a UBI.
According to Economic Survey 2016-17, the inter-state migration of workers in India has increased substantially to 90 lakh annually between 2011-16 period compared to the previous years.
The estimate of labour migration in India was based analysis of census data of 2011 and railway passenger traffic in the unreserved category and new methodologies including the Cohort-based Migration Metric (CMM).
- It is first-ever estimate of internal work-related migration using railways. The inter-state labour mobility average was between 50–65 lakh people in the 2001-2011 period.
- Migration for work and education is accelerating. The acceleration of migration was particularly high for women and increased at nearly twice the rate of male migration in the 2000s
- The patterns of migration observed conform that less affluent states and districts evince higher out-migration and rich metropolises attract large inward flows of labour.
- The largest recipient of migrant workers was the Delhi region, which accounted for more than half of migration in 2015-16, while Uttar Pradesh and Bihar together accounted for half of total out-migrants.
- Over time, there has been a shift towards the southern states, reflecting the opening up of new migration corridors in recent years.
- Policy actions to sustain and maximize the benefits of migration include ensuring portability of food security benefits, healthcare and basic social security framework through an inter-state self-registration process.