Education Current Affairs - 2019
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Oxfam India’s latest report Mind the Gap – State of Employment in India makes the following observations:
- Lack of quality jobs and increasing wage disparity are key markers of inequality in the Indian labour market.
- The report states that the regressive social norms continue to hamper women’s participation in the workforce, pointing at the decline in rural jobs.
- The report states that women are paid 34 per cent less than similarly qualified male workers for performing the same tasks. In 2015, 92 per cent of women and 82 per cent of men earned a monthly wage less than Rs 10,000 in India.
- The report highlights the questions about India’s growth data and emphasises that they do not reflect in the growth of jobs and the largest number of jobs were generated in the unorganised sector.
- Job generation was adversely impacted after demonetisation and hit the women workforce most. Women were forced to move out of the labour force to make way for men to get the few jobs that were available.
- Post demonetisation period witnessed a drop in households with two or more persons employed. Between January and October 2016, the percentage of households where two or more persons were employed was 34.8% and this dropped to 31.8% post-demonetisation, with women workers becoming the first casualties of job losses.
- Highlighting grim picture of ground realities the report states that caste and class continue to play crucial roles in determining the employment for men and women, especially in stigmatised vocations like sanitation, rag-picking, and jobs in the leather industry.
The report calls for a shift in development focus towards labour-intensive sectors to create more jobs and pushes for better work conditions to make jobs more inclusive. The report also calls for substantially higher investments in health and education to improve productivity.
Tags: Demonetisation • Education • Employment • Health • Indian labour market • Job generation • labour intensive sector • Oxfam India • Oxfam. • Wage Disparity • women' participation in the workforce
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) which publishes the Human Development Report (HDR), will release the HDR 2019 with its focus on inequality. The report would be released around the last quarter of the year.
HDR 2019 and Inequality
- HDR 2019 will provide a comprehensive picture of the many forms of inequality that are shaping the 21st century.
- The report will use a framework that looks beyond income and considers inequalities in health, education, tech and exposure to economic and climate-related shock and will look beyond averages to paint a more accurate and timely picture of the state of inequality.
- HDR 2019 will also seek to look beyond today by taking a long-term view of inequality and by identifying trends and making projections.
UNDP has acknowledged that today’s world remains deeply unfair. The life and prospects faced by a newborn in a poor country or in a poor household are radically different from those of wealthier children. In all societies, long-standing forms of inequality persist while gaps are opening in new aspects of life.
The world is witnessing both convergence and divergence in human development. For example, in many countries gaps have closed for example in access to primary education. But differences between children in poor and wealthy households are widening in both early childhood and quality of education. These inequalities will have lifetime consequences, especially due to the rapid technological changes which are likely to impact labour markets. This is just one example of why UNDP’s analysis of inequality will go beyond income, beyond averages and beyond today in HDR 2019.