Environment protection Current Affairs - 2020

Nepal approves new Map: Includes Kalapani

On May 19, 2020, Nepap approved a new map that included the territories of Kalapani, Lipuleh and Limpiyadhura. However, the territories have been claimed by India as well. In October 2019, India issued a new political map that included Lipulekh and Kalapani on its side of border.

What is the issue?

In 1816, the kingdom of Nepal and British India signed the Treaty of Sugauli under which Kali River was fixed as the Western Border of Nepal. The issue has arisen in locating the source of the river that led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal. Both the countries are supporting their own claims.

India’s Claims

India recently inaugurated a road section in Pithogarh district of Uttarakhand. According to India, under treaty of Sugauli, Limpiyadhura is the point of origin of Kali river. It is the point where Nepal border begins.

Kali River

Kali river originates in Sivaliks ranges. The Himalayas are divided into three ranges namely Himadri, Himachal and Sivalik. The river is under India’s clean up target of National Ganga River Basin Authority.

National Ganga River Basin Authority

The National Ganga River Basin Authority was established under Environment Protection Act, 1986. The act also declared Ganges as the National River. The authority though has role in safeguarding the river basin, it is not involved in National Mission for Clean Ganga.

GoI plans to reduce dependency for drug intermediates and APIs

The Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) has collaborated with LAXAI Life Sciences to produce Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients inside India. This will help to reduce dependence of pharmaceutical sector on Chinese imports.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients are also known as bulk drugs. They are the main part of the drugs that produce intended effects

APIs in India

India is the third largest producer of API in the world. Around two-third of the API of India are imported from China according to the data presented in Lok Sabha by the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.

India’s measures so far to reduce dependency

In March 2020, the Government of India had constituted a committee under chairmanship of CDSCO (Central Drugs Standard Control Organization) director Mr Eshwara Reddy. The committee had suggested a package to revive the API industry.

In 2013, Katoch committee was formed to reduce foreign dependence of API. The committee recommended establishment of exclusive parks for APIs.

Why is India lagging in API?

Indian manufacturers of APIs should control pollution economically and also be competitive at the same time. This is the main reason India is lagging behind China in API manufacturing.

Why is China leading in API?

China in 2015 allowed relaxation in environmental norms till 2015. This was the main reason for the API industry to boom in China. However, it created environmental disasters in the country that forced China to close around 150 API manufacturers between 2016 and 2018.