Freedom Struggle Current Affairs - 2020

101st anniversary of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre marked

The Government of India marked the anniversary of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on April 13, 2020. The martyrs killed on the day mercilessly are remembered. PM Modi and other leaders paid tribute to such great martyrs

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

On April 13, 2020, (Baisakhi Day), at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, a peaceful meeting was held by 150,000 to 200,000 people. General Dyer ordered to open fire at the crowd that killed thousands. The people gathered at the park to protest against Rowlatt Act silently.

General Dyer was honoured by the British Parliament for the massacre. This troubled several leaders including Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore and marked the start of liberation struggle.

Rowlatt Act

The act empowered the British Government to imprison any person under suspicion of terror for a maximum of 2 years. A panel was set up for speedy trials with 3 high court judges. There were no court of appeal above the panel. The act also placed severe restrictions on press.

Supreme Court seeks immediate floor test from Madhya Pradesh State Government

On March 17, 2020, the Supreme Court of India issued notice to the Madhya Pradesh State Government to conduct a floor test. A bench headed by Justice Chandrachud issued the notice.

What is the issue?

Jyotiraditya Scindia, who lost 2019 election in Madya Pradesh ended his 18 years association with Congress party and joined BJP. Following this, 16 Members of the Legislative Assembly who won elections with congress ticket submitted their resignation letter to the speaker of the assembly. The assembly commenced for the budget session recently. The speaker accepted their resignation.

Now, there is a question of majority in the house for which when appealed by the MLAs to the SC, the apex court has ordered for a floor test.

Floor Test

The Floor test is conducted in order to prove majority of a government. The Chief Minister or Prime Minister moves vote of confidence. If he gains majority support, he continues to remain in power else he has to resign.

Scindia

The Scindia family ruled the princely state of Gwalior. Jivajirao Scindia (grandfather of Jyotiraditya Scindiya) was the last Maharaja of princely state of Gwalior. His son Madhavrao Scindia was a titular ruler. The 26th amendment of constitution abolished the official symbols of princely states in the country. This put an end to titles, privy purses and privileges enjoyed.

26th Constitutional Amendment

The 26th Constitutional amendment put an end to the privy purse in India. Privy purse was the payment made by the royal families of princely states to stay integrated with India after independence. At the time of independence there were 555 princely states covering 48% of the area and 28% of the population. The rulers were free to make choice in joining India or stay independent. It was Sardar Vallbhbhai Patel, who initiated unification of the princely states.