Fuel Current Affairs - 2020

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GoI: Technology developed to improve Fuel Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines

The International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI) operating under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India has developed a technology to improve fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines.


The technology improves the fuel efficiency by reducing friction in the engines. This has been achieved through Laser surface micro-texturing. In this technology, the friction is controlled by controlling the size, density and shape of the micro-surface texture features. Such a texture is created by using a pulsating laser beam. The beam creates micro-dimples, grooves on the surface of the materials. These Grooves trap debris that usually increase friction and thereby wear and tear.

About the model

The texture has been created on internal combustion engine components such as cylinder liners and piston rings. The model was tested at the ARCI lab under difference speeds and also at different temperatures of lubrication oil and coolant.

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Fuel Upgradation for Indian Navy

On January 13, 2020, the Ministry of Defence announces new fuel upgradation for Indian Navy with revised technical specifications. The High Flash High Speed Diesel (HFHSD) was launched. The aim of the new fuel introduction is to reduce carbon footprint.


Indian Navy, one of the largest navies in the world in collaboration with Indian Oil Corporation carried out several trials before concluding on HFHSD. The Joint Collaboration studied the international regulations of MARPOL, NATO, ISO before concluding on the revised technical specification. Around 22 test parameters were considered. This included certain critical parameters such as flash point, cetane number, sediment content, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability.


The upgrading of fuel is essential in order to keep pace with new technologies and emission standards. This will also help other IOC customers and merchant mariners in the following years. It will also benefit foreign Navy ships participating in exercises.

Bottom line, the fuel upgradation will help in reducing carbon footprint, equipment reliability, increased performance and will help Navy achieve its Mission based deployment.

Critical Parameters of HFHSD

  • Flash Point-Flash Point of the lowest temperature at which HFHSD can form an ignitable mixture with air. Lower the flash point, easier is the ignition. The Flash Point of HFHSD is 66.
  • Cetane Number-It is the number with which the performance of the fuel is measured. Higher the number, better is the fuel performance. The Cetane number of HFHSD is 45.
  • Cold Filter Plugging Point-the temperature at which the fuel passes through the standardised filtration device. The Cold filter Plugging Point is yet to be updated in the report.
  • Cold Filter Plugging Point-The lowest temperature at which the fuel passes through standardised filtration device.
  • Sulphur Content-the percentage of Sulphur (by mass) present in HFHSD. The Sulphur Content of HFHSD is 0.2%

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