Gender Gap Current Affairs - 2019
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The findings of the study published in the journal eLife suggest that mass measles vaccination campaign of India helped save the lives of tens of thousands of children between 2010 and 2013.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. Measles has been an important cause of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine.
Findings of the Study
- The study suggests that that the measles vaccine campaigns helped save 41,000 to 56,000 children in India during 2010 to 2013, or 39-57 per cent of the expected number of deaths nationally.
- The study found that found that mortality in children aged between one and 59 months fell more in the campaign states following launch (27 per cent) than in the non-campaign states (11 per cent).
- The study notes that eliminating deaths from measles in India could be possible, although it will require continued diligence to ensure high immunisation rates among Indian children and direct mortality monitoring.
- Measles mortality risk was notably lower for children living in the campaign districts and those born between 2010-2013.
- The campaign was particularly successful for girls, as there was a steeper decline in the mortality rates of girls than boys in the vaccination campaign states during the three-year period.
- But still, the mortality rates remain higher for girls reference for boys and/or lower levels of breastfeeding and healthcare access.
The study adopted a novel statistical method on data from the Million Death Study (MDS), a nationally representative sample of all deaths in India, which includes detailed interviews with families about child deaths.
According to Global Wage Report 2018-19 published by International Labour Organization (ILO), women are paid most unequally in India, compared to men, when it comes to hourly wages for labour. This gap in wages, known as gender wage gap is the highest among 73 countries studied in the report. The findings are based on data from 136 countries.
Highlights of report
On average, women are paid 34% less than men in India. Globally, on average, hourly wages of women are 16% less than those of men. Inequality is higher in monthly wages, with a gap of 22%. Overall, real wages grew just 1.8% globally (136 countries) in 2017.Women are paid higher hourly wages than men in Bangladesh. Gender wage gap highest in India, women are paid 30% less than men.
In most countries, women and men differ significantly in respect of working time – specifically, that part-time work is more prevalent among women than among men. The gender wage gap is visible even with women with higher levels of education. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring equal pay for women and men.
The gender wage gap has remained unchanged at 20% from 2016 to 2017. But in 2017, gender gap was accompanied by near-stagnation in wages. Real wage growth was lowest since 2008, the year of the financial crisis. In real terms (adjusted for price inflation), global wage growth declined to 1.8% in 2017, from 2.4% in 2016.
In advanced economies (G20), real wage growth declined from 0.9% in 2016 to 0.4% in 2017, meaning near stagnation. By contrast, in emerging economies and developing G20 countries, real wage growth dipped marginally from 4.9% in 2016 and 4.3% in 2017.
This global stagnation in real wages comes in line with global growth forecast, which was revised lower by International Monetary Fund (IMF) earlier. The slowdown in wages at level of hourly labour wages is in stark contrast with organised sector salaries.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
The ILO is United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all. It was established in 1919 as an agency of the League of Nations and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. India is a founder member of the ILO. At present, it has 187 members. The principal means of action in the ILO is the setting up of International standards in the form of Conventions, Recommendations and Protocol. So far, India has ratified 45 Conventions, out of which 42 are in force. Out of these 4 are Core or Fundamental or Conventions.
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