Gender Gap Current Affairs
According to Global Wage Report 2018-19 published by International Labour Organization (ILO), women are paid most unequally in India, compared to men, when it comes to hourly wages for labour. This gap in wages, known as gender wage gap is the highest among 73 countries studied in the report. The findings are based on data from 136 countries.
Highlights of report
On average, women are paid 34% less than men in India. Globally, on average, hourly wages of women are 16% less than those of men. Inequality is higher in monthly wages, with a gap of 22%. Overall, real wages grew just 1.8% globally (136 countries) in 2017.Women are paid higher hourly wages than men in Bangladesh. Gender wage gap highest in India, women are paid 30% less than men.
In most countries, women and men differ significantly in respect of working time – specifically, that part-time work is more prevalent among women than among men. The gender wage gap is visible even with women with higher levels of education. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring equal pay for women and men.
The gender wage gap has remained unchanged at 20% from 2016 to 2017. But in 2017, gender gap was accompanied by near-stagnation in wages. Real wage growth was lowest since 2008, the year of the financial crisis. In real terms (adjusted for price inflation), global wage growth declined to 1.8% in 2017, from 2.4% in 2016.
In advanced economies (G20), real wage growth declined from 0.9% in 2016 to 0.4% in 2017, meaning near stagnation. By contrast, in emerging economies and developing G20 countries, real wage growth dipped marginally from 4.9% in 2016 and 4.3% in 2017.
This global stagnation in real wages comes in line with global growth forecast, which was revised lower by International Monetary Fund (IMF) earlier. The slowdown in wages at level of hourly labour wages is in stark contrast with organised sector salaries.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
The ILO is United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all. It was established in 1919 as an agency of the League of Nations and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. India is a founder member of the ILO. At present, it has 187 members. The principal means of action in the ILO is the setting up of International standards in the form of Conventions, Recommendations and Protocol. So far, India has ratified 45 Conventions, out of which 42 are in force. Out of these 4 are Core or Fundamental or Conventions.
Tags: Business • Economy • Employment • Equal pay for equal work • Feminist economics • Gender Gap • Gender pay gap • Gender wage gap • Global Wage Report • ILO • India • International labour law • International Labour Organization • Labour law • Misogyny • Real wages • Reports • Social Issues • Wages and salaries • Women Related Issues
According to recent study released by LIRNEAsia, India has highest gender gap in mobile phone ownership amongst 18 comparable countries and ranks among the lowest in women’s access to Internet. LIRNEAsia is an information and communications technology (ICT) policy think tank that is involved in pro-poor, pro-market research in Asia-Pacific since 2005. The study also included comparative research done by ICT Africa in Africa and DIRSI in Latin America.
Key Highlights of Study
Ownership of mobile phones: Only 43% of women in India own mobile phones compared to almost 80% of Indian males mostly because of lack of awareness. This difference is almost half of all other countries in study including Pakistan, Bangladesh and Rwanda. There is substantial urban-rural divide in mobile phone ownership with 71% urban penetration and 55% in rural. India’s urban-rural gap is comparable to that in Nigeria.
Internet and social media usage: Women, rural citizens, and those with lower education or income significantly lag behind in internet and social media usage. The gender gap in internet usage is accentuated in rural regions at 52% as compared to 34% in urban areas. India’s 57% gender gap in Internet usage was surpassed only by Bangladesh and Rwanda. Its gender gap in social media usage was even higher with wider divides only in Bangladesh.
Information about internet: In India, 64% do not know about internet which is higher percentage than other countries except Pakistan and Bangladesh. 68% of this group was female and 68 % were from rural areas. India’s internet use was at 19% which is lower than that of Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Cambodia.
E-commerce: Awareness of platforms for e-commerce was higher in India compared to Pakistan and Bangladesh. In India, 27% mainly use social media, 16 % for entertainment and 15% for news. Higher percentage of women used social media for marketing and educational content, while men used social media to chat which is significantly more than women.
Political views on social media: Indian social media users share their political views at some of highest rates. More than half shared their religion, 26% share their sexual orientation, and 70% shared their mobile number or email address. Women shared information less than men in almost all categories except for political and sexual orientation.
Distrust of news: India also has high distrust of news shared on social media and only 29% trust social media news while more than half did not. India also saw higher online harassment than Pakistan, Bangladesh and Cambodia at 19% of users. Much of this was offensive name-calling and in 20% of such cases, it led to reduced use of particular website.