genetic material Current Affairs - 2020

Global Drosophila Conference held at Pune

On January 6, 2020, the fifth Asia Pacific Drosophila Research Conference was held at Pune. It was organized by the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research. The conference is held twice a year.

Highlights

The conference is to be held between January 6, 2020 and January 10, 2020. It aims at promoting interaction between the Drosophila researchers in the region of Asia-Pacific. The conference acts as a common platform to link the Asia-Pacific researchers with other parts of the world. The event is the largest meet of Drosophila researchers in the whole world.

The Research

Drosophila is the small fruit fly. Scientists and Researchers for the past 100 years have been using the fly as a model organism in researches.

Drosophila

The small fruit flies are extensively used as model organisms in biochemistry, cell biology, genetics and developmental biology. The main reason for the fly being used as model in genome researches is that the relationship between fruit fly and humans are undeniably similar. Both the genres pass on the traits to successive generations in similar way!

The density of genes per chromosomes is higher in Drosophila than that of humans. The flies have 15,500 genes on four chromosomes. On the other hand, humans have 22,000 genes in 23 chromosomes. Hence, the passage of traits throughout generations are much more higher in these flies and ideal for genetic studies.

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Three-person Baby Boy Born in Greece

A team of doctors from Greece and Spain have reported the birth of a baby using DNA from three people. The baby boy has inherited the genetic material from two women and a man.

How did the new IVF method work?

Doctors used an egg from the infertile mother, the father’s sperm and another woman’s egg to conceive the baby boy. The doctors transferred genetic material with chromosomes from the mother to the egg of a donor whose own genetic material had been removed in a process.

A similar DNA switching technique was adopted in Mexico in 2016 to avoid transmission of a mother’s hereditary illness to her child. But this case from Greece is unique owing to the fact that for the first time an IVF (in vitro fertilization) technique using DNA from three people has been deployed to allow a mother otherwise unable to conceive to have a child.

In-vitro Fertilisation

In-vitro Fertilization is an artificial reproduction technique wherein the process of fertilization happens by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory set-up. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.

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