Geography Current Affairs

Conditions normal for 2018 monsoon season: Weather scientists

Weather scientists have predicted normal monsoon in June-September 2018 monsoon season as prevailing conditions as well as neutral ENSO were favourable for good monsoon rainfall. India receives 89 cm of rainfall during four-month monsoon season, which is almost 75% of its annual rainfall. In 2017 monsoon season, country as whole had received rainfall that was 95% of its long-period average.

Key Facts

The most important favourable condition for good monsoon is near-neutral to neutral ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) in equatorial Pacific Ocean, off coast of South America. Global climate models are showing near-neutral conditions prevailing in Pacific Ocean and it will remain this way through most of the year.

Moreover, La Niña conditions are present and equatorial sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are below average across central and eastern Pacific Ocean. The transition from La Niña to ENSO-neutral is most likely during March-May season, with neutral conditions likely to continue into second half of year. SST anomalies in eastern tropical pacific are ENSO-neutral during coming summer and hence normal monsoon is expected this year.

ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation)

ENSO refers to anomalies in SSTs in Pacific Ocean off coast of South America which has sometimes been observed to have near-decisive impact on monsoon rainfall. In El Nino, a warmer than usual SST is observed in Pacific Ocean off coast of South America . This condition is associated with suppressed monsoon rainfall in India. La Nina is opposite ENSO and is more favourable for monsoon. It is known to help monsoon rainfall in India. When anomalies (deviations from usual SST in the Pacific Ocean) are too small or absent, monsoon rainfall over India is normal.

Tags:

Krem Puri: World’s longest sandstone cave discovered in Meghalaya

The world’s longest sandstone cave named Krem Puri was discovered near Laitsohum village in Mawsynram area in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. The cave is 24,583 metres (24.5 km) in length and is known for its complex cave systems hidden under its undulating hills. It was discovered in 2016 but its actual length was found during expedition to measure and map it by Meghalaya Adventurers’ Association (MAA)

Krem Puri

Krem Puri underground cavern is more than 6,000 metres longer than world record-holder Cueva Del Saman in Edo Zulia, Venezuela, a quartzite sandstone cave measuring 18,200 metres (18.2km). This sandstone cave is also India’s second longest cave in general category after limestone Krem Liat Prah-Umim-Labit system measuring little over 31 km in Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya. Krem Puri cave system also has fossils of dinosaurs, especially Mosasaurus, a giant reptile that lived 66-76 million years ago.

Background

There are whereabouts of more than 1,650 caves and cave locations in Meghalaya, of which over 1,000 have been explored or partially explored. According to official data, the northeastern state has 491km of surveyed caves and many more are waiting to be discovered. Krem in Khasi language means cave. Mawsynram is known as wettest place on earth for its record-breaking rainfall.

Tags:

12345...10...14