GHG Current Affairs - 2020

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UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2019

Recently released United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Emissions Gap Report-2019 warns that the Earth’s average temperature may rise by 3.2 degrees Celsius by 2100. Moreover, despite all scientific warnings and political commitments emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) couldn’t decrease globally.

The report was released prior to United Nations Climate Conference (COP-25) to be held in Spain from 2 December 2019. It states that GHG emissions have increased by 1.5% since last decade and that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have reached an all-time high figure of 55.3 gigatons.

Key Findings of UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2019

China, United States of America (USA), European Union (28) and India are among the top four greenhouse gas emitters.

India: UNEP report highlights that India is regularly considering deadlines and targets to curb carbon emissionAs per the report, India’s per capita emission is one of the lowest within G20 countries. Also, India is one of the leading countries that are looking for electric vehicle development.

Globally:

The report suggested that only if Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are reduced by 7.6% every year during 2020 to 2030 period, only then the target of reducing global temperature can be achieved.

As per the report, the largest GHG contribution comes from energy sector and its fossil fuel emissions. Thus to achieve the target of limiting temperature rise to no more than 1.5 ° C, all countries must reduce GHG emissions by up to 5 times.

The report also highlights that if global temperature reaches at level of 1.5 degrees then coral reefs would be reduced by 70-90%. It also clarifies that by 2100, the world would be warmer 3.2 degrees that pre-industrial level.

Key Recommendations of Emissions Gap Report 2019

The report suggested that each country has own unique opportunities to protect livelihood, natural resources and lives. Moreover, Complete de-carbonization of energy sector is possible and necessary. With renewable energy electricity, the emission reduction can achieve a target of 12.1 gigatonnes (GT) by 2050. Also, the electrification of transport can also help to reduce carbon emission up to 72% by 2050.

 

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Brown to Green Report, 2019: Performance of G20 countries on Climate Change

The Brown to Green Report is the most comprehensive review of climate actions of G20 nations. The report covers 80 indicators and is developed by experts from 14 research organizations.

Highlights of the report

  • G20 countries are responsible for 80% of global Green House Gas emissions.
  • Every year between 1998 and 2017, the G20 countries lost 142 billion USD on an average due to extreme weather events.
  • According to the report, India is the only country that is close to 1.5-degree Celsius temperature rise. It is the scenario set by the global scenario in the Paris Agreement that will lead to disastrous consequences. India has set ambitious NDCs and is investing more in long term goals.
  • Russia, France, Italy, Germany and India were the highest ranked countries that faced economic losses from extreme weather events. Around 181 countries were taken for the ranking
  • Brazil and Germany were the only two countries with long term goals.
  • The other countries like Russia, Indonesia, China, Saudi Arabia, EU and Turkey are lagging ambitious NDC targets as required by Paris Agreement
  • Australia was the worst performing country in terms of climate response according to the report.

G20 Groupings

There are around 20 members in the G20 grouping including India. The Grouping was established with the aim of discussing policies pertaining to promotion of international financial stability. Collectively, the grouping account to 90% of the world GDP with two-third world population and 80% of world trade.

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