Global Tiger Day Current Affairs - 2020

July 29: Global Tiger Day

Every year July 29 is celebrated as Global Tiger Day. The decision to celebrate the day was taken at the Saint Petersburg Declaration on Tiger conservation that was signed in 2010.

India

India has 70% of total tiger population in the world. To commemorate Global Tiger Day, the Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar released the All India Tiger Estimation-2018 report. Also, the Union Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan is to release a report on Tiger Census to commemorate Global Tiger Day. The day is also called International Tiger Day.

Highlights

The day is celebrated to create awareness for tiger conservation. It promotes a system to protect natural habitats of tigers and raise public awareness. This year, the Global Tiger Day is celebrated with the slogan, “Their Survival is in our hands”.

Saint Petersburg Summit

The summit was held to increase the awareness about declining tiger population in the world. Also, the leaders attended the summit pledged to make efforts to double the tiger population by 2022.

Significance

From the beginning of 20th century, around 95% of the tiger population have been lost according to World Widlife Fund. Currently, there are only 3,900 wild tigers. Poaching, climate change and habitat loss are the main reasons for the decrease in Tiger population.

All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018 released

As per the All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018 India has 2,967 tigers, a third more than in 2014. The Tiger census made public on occasion of Global Tiger Day (29 July) by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Key Findings

Top 5 Performing States: Madhya Pradesh saw highest number at 526, followed by Karnataka (524), Uttarakhand (442), Maharashtra (312) and Tamil Nadu (264).

States that saw Decline in Tiger Population: Chhattisgarh and Mizoram. While all other States saw a Positive increase.

Highest Number of Tigers:  found in Pench Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh.

Maximum Improvement in Tiger Population since 2014: recoded in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil

4th cycle of the Management Effectiveness Evaluation of Tiger Reserves (MEETR), which evaluates India’s 50 tiger sanctuaries was also released along with 4th National Tiger Estimation (Tiger census). According to it-

Pench sanctuary (MP) and Periyar sanctuary of Kerala emerged as best managed tiger reserves in country. Top performers scored 93.75%.

Dampa Reserve (Mizoram) and Rajaji reserve (Uttarakhand) with score of 42.97% and 44.53% respectively were left at bottom of ladder.

Chhattisgarh was least performing State in reserve management.

Methodology: Sanctuaries, which spanned 80 States, were divided into 5 geographic clusters and on the whole, Western Ghats cluster comprising reserves in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka scored an average of 81%. A score of 75% and above is rated ‘very good’ and score of 41% and above was marked as ‘fair’.

4th National Tiger Estimation (Tiger census)

It is 4th such tiger survey since 2006. It is a gargantuan exercise and is conducted once in 4 years. Latest survey is culmination of 15 months (1.3 year) of forest officials surveying 3,81,400 sq-km of forested habitat, installing 26,760 camera traps and wildlife biologists digging by 35 million images of wildlife- 76,523 out of which were tigers (there can be multiple images of same tiger). Nearly 83% of estimated tiger population was captured in these images.